Description: The Temple of Derr or el-Derr is a speos or rock-cut temple built by pharaoh Ramesses II in Lower Nubia. It is the only rock-cut temple in Nubia which was constructed by this pharaoh on the right (or east) bank of the Nile and used to stand at el-Derr. The temple's unique position "was probably due to the fact that the river on its approach to the Korosko bend flows in an 'unnatural' southeasterly direction." The Derr structure was known in ancient times as 'The Temple of Ri'amsese-meryamun [Ramesses II] in the Domain of Re ' and was dedicated to the god Ra-Horakhty. Scholars disagree over its precise construction date: the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal states that it was built in the thirteenth year of Ramesses II, presumably to coincide with his first royal jubilee. In contrast, John Baines and Jaromír Málek write that the temple of Derr "was built in the second half of the king's reign", likely because its "plan and decoration resembles the Great Temple of Abu Simbel (minus the colossal seated statues against the facade)." Abu Simbel was built between Year 24 and Year 31 of Ramesses' reign. According to Joyce Tyldesley, the Temple of Derr was built by Setau, who is known to have served as Ramesses' Viceroy of Kush or Nubia between Year 38 to 63 of this pharaoh's reign.