| The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5.3 million year ago.|
Of the modern geologic features, only the land bridge between South America and North America was absent.
During this period, mountain building took place in Western North America and Europe. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines.
Climates remained moderately warm although the slow global cooling that eventually led to the Pleistocene glaciations