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07-06-2007, 04:07 AM
On this day in 1947, Howard Hughes piloted the "Spruce Goose" for about a mile.

It is now sitting in the Evergreen Aviation Museum

07-06-2007, 04:20 AM
Hi bowlspipe. Welcome to GEH. :)

Thanks for your information. Here is the museum in our directory, unfortunately in low resolution image.


Captain Hornblower
07-06-2007, 01:39 PM
Pretty cool idea, that "This day in history" stuff. I am going to pick that up and throw in whenever it's possible. :yep:

Captain Hornblower
07-07-2007, 01:30 PM
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Empire of Japan's Imperial Japanese Army, marking the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).

07-07-2007, 03:22 PM
On this day London was attacked by terrorists (suicide bombers) in 3 subway trains and one double decker bus.
Within 50 seconds 3 train bombs exploded. The bus bomb 1 hour later.

56 people were killed, 700 injured. The bombers were british citicens.


Captain Hornblower
07-08-2007, 02:47 PM
On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) issued a press release stating that personnel from the field's 509th Bomb Group had recovered a crashed "flying disc" from a ranch near Roswell, sparking intense media interest.


Captain Hornblower
07-10-2007, 04:22 AM
On 10.07.1962 the first commercial communication satellite, Telstar, was launched from Cape Canaveral.


07-10-2007, 01:01 PM
1890: Wyoming becomes 44th. US state.

1920: North Sleswig becomes danish territory again efter 56 years of german territory. King Christian X cross the old border at Christiansfeld on a white horse.

1940: Beginn of The Battle of Britain. At least 70 german bombers attack southern wales docks.

1976: The accident in a Seveso chemical plant, Italy, leading toxic dioxine in the air.

Captain Hornblower
07-14-2007, 09:59 AM
The confrontation between the commoners and the ancien régime ultimately led to the people of Paris storming the Bastille on July 14, 1789, following several days of disturbances. At this point, the jail was nearly empty, with only seven inmates: four counterfeiters (who were arrested back the day after), two madmen, and a young aristocrat who had displeased his father. The regular garrison consisted of about 80 invalides (veteran soldiers no longer capable of service in the field) under Governor Bernard-René de Launay. They had however been reinforced by a detachment of 32 grenadiers from one of the Swiss mercenary regiments summoned to Paris by the Monarchy shortly before 14 July.

A crowd of around 1,000 people gathered outside around mid-morning, calling for the surrender of the prison, the removal of the guns and the release of the arms and gunpowder. Two people chosen to represent those gathered were invited into the fortress and slow negotiations began.

In the early afternoon, the crowd broke into the undefended outer courtyard and the chains on the drawbridge to the inner courtyard were cut. A spasmodic exchange of gunfire began; in mid-afternoon the crowd was reinforced by mutinous Gardes Françaises of the Royal Army and two cannons. De Launay ordered a ceasefire; despite his surrender demands being refused, he capitulated and the vainqueurs swept in to liberate the fortress at around 5:30.


Captain Hornblower
07-15-2007, 09:53 AM
During Napoleons campaign in Egypt the engineer Bouchard found a Ptolemaic era stele, known as the Rosetta stone named after the port of Rosetta (now Rashid), where it was found. On that stone the same passage was written in two Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and demotic) and in classical Greek. Comparative translation of the stone assisted in understanding many previously undecipherable examples of hieroglyphic writing.


Captain Hornblower
07-16-2007, 04:06 AM
Trinity was the first test of a nuclear weapon. It was conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at a location 35 miles (56 km) southeast of Socorro, New Mexico, on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo. Trinity was a test of an implosion-design plutonium bomb—the same type of weapon dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, a few weeks later. The detonation was equivalent to the explosion of around 20 kilotons of TNT, and is usually considered as the beginning of the Atomic Age.


Captain Hornblower
07-17-2007, 04:14 PM
17.07.1932, a bloody sunday in Altona, today one of Hamburgs suburbs. A march of the SA (Sturmabteilung, functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s) through the city of Altona of the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein became out of control, 18 people were shot.

Shortly before, the administration of Von Papen lifted the ban of the SA and SS (Schutzstaffel, a large security and military organization of the NSDAP in Germany). Fights were predictable as demo of 7,000 uniformed SA-people through the city of Altona, known as "Red Altona" due to the majority of communistically and social democratically electing workership.

The scenery of 1932 has changed a lot caused by sever damage in WW2. The action took place around this placemark. About 800 SA-people passed a crossing at this place, as at 1700 a crowd of communists met the crowd of the SA, who tried to banish the communists successfully. Suddenly shots, and 2 SA people died. The appearing police assumed that the SA was ambushed from roofs and windows and banished the people and shot to real and assumed attackers. 16 uninvolved people died.

It's assumed that both side shot. There are no doubts, that the 2 SA-people were killed by communists. It's never cleared up, who killed the other 16 citizens. After a trial with questionable evidences 4 communists were sentenced to death and on 01.08.1933 executed by hatchet, the first executions in the Third Reich.

Captain Hornblower
07-18-2007, 06:14 PM
TWA flight 800 exploded at 00:31 UTC off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.


07-19-2007, 12:08 AM
1989 - 112 people were killed when a United Airline DC-10 airplane crashed in Sioux City, Iowa. 184 people did survive the accident.

Captain Hornblower
07-19-2007, 04:10 PM
The Battle of Halidon Hill was fought during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Scottish forces under Sir Archibald Douglas were heavily defeated on unfavourable terrain while trying to relieve Berwick-upon-Tweed.


07-20-2007, 01:58 PM
We learned about this in history class...nice to actually see the battle site in GE. =)

Captain Hornblower
07-20-2007, 02:15 PM
July 20, 1944 was a failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany, in his headquarter Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) and subsequently take power by means of an altered Operation Walküre plan which was supposed to subdue possible unrest. The key role was played by Wehrmacht officer Claus von Stauffenberg who was in charge of the German Reserve Army's Walküre, a role which allowed him access to Hitler for reports.

Stauffenberg and other directly involved officers were sentenced to death. At 00:10 on 21 July they were shot in the courtyard outside, possibly to prevent them from revealing Fromm's involvement. Others would have been executed as well, but at 00:30 the SS arrived on the scene and further executions were forbidden.

Very few of the plotters tried to escape or to deny their guilt when arrested. Those who survived interrogation were given perfunctory trials before the People’s Court and its judge Roland Freisler. Eventually some 5,000 people were arrested and about 200 were executed – not all of them connected with the July 20 plot, since the Gestapo used the occasion to settle scores with many other people suspected of opposition sympathies. The first trials were held in the People's Court on 7 and 8 August 1944. Hitler had ordered that those found guilty be "hung like cattle". The treatment that had been dealt out to those executed as a result of the Rote Kapelle was that of slow strangulation using suspension from a rope attached to a slaughterhouse meathook. For the July 20 plotters piano wire was used instead.


Captain Hornblower
07-21-2007, 09:02 AM
The Battle of Shrewsbury, at what is now Battlefield in Shropshire, was between an army led by the Lancastrian King, Henry IV, and a rebel army led by Henry "Hotspur" Percy from Northumberland.

The battle opened with a massive archery barrage, killing or wounding many of the men before they could meet in the field. Of the two forces, the Percy's Cheshire bowmen proved generally superior. However when the two armies finally met, the greater numbers of the Royal army generally prevailed. The Percys attempted to address this imbalance with a charge, but it was premature and Henry Percy was killed. At this point the rebel forces fled the field, and a rout began. Over 300 knights and another 20,000 men-at-arms fell on the field, and thousands more died of injuries over the next few weeks.

Henry Percy was initially buried at Whitchurch, Shropshire, but rumours soon spread that he was not really dead. In response the King had him disinterred. His body was set up in Shrewsbury impaled on a spear between two millstones, and was later quartered and put on show in the four corners of the country. In November his remains were returned to his widow.

The battle itself and many of the people involved appear in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1.


Captain Hornblower
07-21-2007, 09:11 AM
The Wild Bill Hickok-David Tutt shootout was a gunfight that occurred on July 21, 1865 in the town square of Springfield, Missouri. The later famous Marshal and gunfighter, Wild Bill Hickok, had been engaged in a poker game with a local cowboy named David Tutt. Although they were both gamblers, David Tutt did better that day and won all of Hickok's money. As collateral for a portion of Hickok's gambling debt, Tutt took Hickok's prized gold pocket watch.

Hickok warned Tutt not to wear the watch in public as this was a grave personal insult. Tutt ignored this and wore the watch anyway. Tutt and Hickok walked up to each other in the town square in a manner similar to 1950s cowboy television shows, which actually was unusual in most real gunfights. The fight became famous due to the distance involved. At a distance of at least 75 yards (~70 metres), they both fired one shot. Tutt missed but Hickok's shot found its target in Tutt's chest. Tutt stumbled 20 feet before succumbing to his wound and dying. Although Hickok obviously instigated the gunfight, it was considered a "fair fight", and no charges were ever filed against Hickok.

Dave Tutt's body was buried in the City Cemetery and subsequently moved to the Maple Park Cemetery, where his grave is marked with a gravestone showing a carved pocket watch, playing cards and pistols.


Captain Hornblower
07-21-2007, 09:17 AM
Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. Two dams straddle the river at this point: the newer Aswan High Dam, and the older Aswan Dam or Aswan Low Dam. Without impoundment the River Nile would flood each year during summer, as waters from East Africa flowed down the river. These floods brought nutrients and minerals that made the soil around the Nile fertile and ideal for farming. As the population along the river grew, there came a need to control the flood waters to protect farmland and cotton fields. In a high-water year, the whole crop may be entirely wiped out, while in a low-water year there was widespread drought and famine. The aim of this water project was to prevent the river's flooding, generate electricity and provide water for agriculture.


Captain Hornblower
07-24-2007, 06:06 PM
The first Europeans to settle in the valley were the Latter-day Saints on July 24, 1847. They had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States seeking an isolated area to practice their religion, away from the hostility they had faced in the East. Upon arrival, President of the Church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "this is the right place," later abbreviated to simply "this is the place," after reportedly seeing the area in a vision. They found the large valley empty of any human settlement.


Captain Hornblower
07-25-2007, 04:09 AM
Air France Flight 4590 was a Concorde flight from Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris, France to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, New York, and operated by Air France. On July 25, 2000 it crashed in Gonesse, France. All 100 passengers and nine crew on board the flight, as well as four people on the ground, were killed.


Captain Hornblower
07-26-2007, 04:09 AM
On 26.07.1932 the German traing sailing vessel NIOBE capsized and sunk. 40 sailors were rescued, 69 men died.

07-26-2007, 11:45 AM
I sure am enjoying your series of TDIH posts Captain. Thanks for taking the time and effort.

07-26-2007, 12:13 PM
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was founded. Until 1935 it was called "Office of the Chief Examiner".

Captain Hornblower
07-26-2007, 03:57 PM
I sure am enjoying your series of TDIH posts Captain. Thanks for taking the time and effort.
Thanks, buddy :givebeer:
But everybody is free to post / add a historical event of the day. :yep:

07-26-2007, 04:38 PM
But everybody is free to post / add a historical event of the day.

But - as is so often the case - you end up doing most of the work. Face it, GEH is a much better place because you are around!

Captain Hornblower
07-26-2007, 05:15 PM
I am just contributing as a part of an awesome community and as a one of some enthusiastical mods... :)

Captain Hornblower
07-27-2007, 04:04 AM
The Korean War began as a civil war fought from 1950–1953 on the Korean Peninsula, which had been divided by the post-World War II Soviet and American occupation zones. The civil war began on June 25, 1950, when North Korea attacked South Korea. The civil war was greatly expanded when the United Nations, led by the United States, and later China entered the conflict. The conflict ended when a cease-fire was reached on July 27, 1953.


07-27-2007, 09:54 PM
1694: Bank of England was founded.

1839: The Opium War between England and China begin. China confiscate a huge am ount of Opium from the Britons.

1990: The last Citroen 2CV is produced at the factory in Portugal.

1996: The bomb attack at the Olympics in Atlanta. 2 persons were killed and 111 wounded at the Centennial Olympic Park.
Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centennial_Olympic_Park_bombing

07-28-2007, 08:11 AM
1540: Henry VIII marries his 5th wife, Catherine Howard, she was 19 and Henry 49. 1542 she was executed for adultery. She was a cousin of Henry VIII second wife, Anne Boleyn. She was also executed.

1586: The first potatoes arrives in England from Colombia.

1794: Robespierre and 4 other allied were guillotined.

1858: The first finger print was used as identification. It was invented by William Herschel at the Indian Civil Service, Jungipur, India. He took a print of a Rajyadhar Konai from the back side of a contract.

1914: Austria-Hungary declares Serbia war after the murdering of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on june 28th. This was the begin of WW I.

1945: An american B52 bomber came out of course because of fog and flew into Empire State Building in New York. 13 people were killed.

Captain Hornblower
07-28-2007, 08:16 AM
Pepin the Younger (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short) (714 – September 24, 768), known for being the father of Charlemagne or Charles the Great, was crowned in the Saint Denis Basilica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Denis_Basilica) (near Paris) to king of the Franks.


Captain Hornblower
07-28-2007, 08:22 AM
Thomas Cromwell (1485 - 28.07.1540), 1st Earl of Essex (C. 1485 – 28 July 1540) and King Henry VIII of England's chief minister 1532–1540, was executed on 28.07.1540 after his downfall as the chief minister of the king.

Cromwell had supported Henry in disposing of Anne Boleyn and replacing her with Jane Seymour. His downfall was the haste with which he encouraged the king to re-marry following Jane's premature death. The marriage to Anne of Cleves, a political alliance which Cromwell had urged on Henry, was a disaster, and this was all the opportunity that Cromwell's conservative opponents, most notably the Duke of Norfolk, needed to press for his arrest. Whilst at a Council meeting on 10 June 1540, Cromwell was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Cromwell was subject to an Act of Attainder and was kept alive by Henry so he could be divorced from Anne.

He was then privately executed at the Tower on 28 July 1540. It is said that Henry intentionally chose an inexperienced executioner -- the teenager made three attempts at chopping Cromwell's head before he succeeded. After execution his head was boiled and then set upon a spike on London Bridge—facing away from the City of London.


Captain Hornblower
07-28-2007, 08:31 AM
The large port city of Hamburg was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused tens of thousands of mostly civilian casualties.

In the night of 27/28 July 1943 a large raid by 787 aircraft guided in by Pathfinders using H2S happened, bombing about 2 miles east of city centre. Because of the unseasonally dry conditions, a firestorm was created in the built-up working-class districts of Hammerbrook, Hamm and Borgfelde. The bombing was more concentrated than the RAF was usually able to manage at this stage of the war. In just over half an hour it is estimated that 550-600 bomb loads fell into an area measuring only 2 miles by 1 mile and this gradually spread the fire eastwards. The firestorm lasted for about three hours, consuming approximately 16,000 multi-storyed apartment buildings and killing an estimated 40,000 people, most of them by carbon monoxide poisoning when all the air was drawn out of their basement shelters. Fearing further raids, two-thirds of Hamburg's population, approximately 1,200,000 people, fled the city in the aftermath.


Captain Hornblower
07-28-2007, 08:36 AM
The first assault on the Großglockner in 1799 failed. In the summer of 1800 a second expedition was organized by Franz-Xaver Salm-Raifferscheid, Prince-Bishop of Gurk: 62 persons, among them 47 guides, took part. The old Salmhütte, at 2750 m, was specially built to furnish shelter for this undertaking. On 28 July 1800, brothers Martin and Sepp Klotz, along with two other carpenters, and even a clergyman from Dölsach named Horasch, challenged themselves to reach the summit by way of the Hohenwartscharte.


07-29-2007, 01:54 PM
The 14th Summer Olympic Games were opened at Empire Stadium (Wembley Stadium) by King George VI. It ended om August 14th.

59 nations attended with 4104 athletes (390 women, 3,714 men) in 136 events. Germany and Japan weren't invited to join the games.



Captain Hornblower
07-29-2007, 02:03 PM
Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor, Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, married Lady Diana Frances Spencer in St. Pauls Cathedral (http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile6423/St.-Pauls-Cathedral,-London.htm) in London.

Captain Hornblower
07-29-2007, 02:13 PM
On 29.07.1947 ENICA (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), the first large-scale, electronic, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems, had been turned on at its home in the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and would be in continuous operation until 02.10.1955.


07-30-2007, 05:40 PM
The 10th Olympic Games in Los Angeles were opened. 37 countries attended with 1332 athletes (126 women, 1,206 men) in 117 events.

Automatic time control and photo finish was introduced.

The famous finnish runner, Paavo Nurmi was not allowed to participate in the Marathon race because he had got more money for running in Germany than the IOC allowed.

The olympic village was introduced.

The games closed august 14th.



07-30-2007, 07:03 PM
England became World Champions in football/soccer by 4:2 after extra time against Germany.

Most famous is the goal by Geoff Hurst to a 3:2 lead in the 98th minute when he shot the ball and it hit the crossbar, bounced down into the goalmouth.
The referee Gottfried Dienst of Switzerland okayed the goal after asking linesman Tofik Bakhramov (USSR).

It has been debated ever since whether it did cross the line or not. Especially in Germany.

Researchers from Oxford University in 1995 announced the results of computer video analysis of the television footage, which gave new angles of view, concluded that the shot had not crossed the line, so should not have been allowed.


08-02-2007, 05:11 PM
During a poker game in the saloon of the small town Deadwood SD James Butler known as Wild Bill Hickok was shot by a Jack McCall. The day before McCall lost 110 mio $ to Hickock.

On the evening of August 1, 1876, Wild Bill was playing poker with several men, including Jack McCall, who lost horribly. Wild Bill gave Jack money to buy breakfast, and told him not to play poker again until he could cover his losses. The next day, Wild Bill entered the Nuttall & Mann's saloon and took a seat at a poker table with his back facing the door. Wild Bill would normally sit in a seat with his back facing a corner so he was less vulnerable to an attack from behind, but that day Charlie Rich was sitting in his preferred seat. Subsequently Jack McCall entered, shouted, "Take that!", and shot him in the back of the head with a .45 caliber revolver.

Jack McCall was subsequently arrested on August 29 and brought back to Yankton, South Dakota to be arraigned. Jack McCall was found guilty of the murder of Wild Bill Hickok and was subsequently hanged on March 1, 1877. He was buried with the noose around his neck.

It's said that Hickock won with 2 pairs of eights and aces, today called dead mans hand.


Captain Hornblower
08-03-2007, 06:23 AM
On the evening of 03.08.1492, Columbus (*1451 +20.05.1506) departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships; one larger carrack, Santa María and two smaller caravels, Pinta and Niña.

In October he discovered the New World, but that's another day in history ;)


Captain Hornblower
08-03-2007, 06:31 AM
On 03.08.1914 the German Reich declared war to France and invaded in Belgium according to the Schlieffen-Plan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schlieffen_Plan).

Captain Hornblower
08-03-2007, 06:33 AM
USS Nautilus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Nautilus_%28SSN-571%29) (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole, which the submarine reached on 03.08.1958.

Captain Hornblower
08-04-2007, 05:35 AM
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American destroyers, the USS Maddox and the USS Turner Joy. The attacks were alleged to have occurred on 2 August and 4 August 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin.

Later research, including a report released in 2005 by the National Security Agency, indicated that the second attack most likely did not occur, but also attempted to dispel the long-standing assumption that members of the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson had knowingly lied about the nature of the incident.

The outcome of the incident was the passage by Congress of the Southeast Asia Resolution (better known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution), which granted Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression". The resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for escalating American involvement in the Vietnam Conflict.


Captain Hornblower
08-04-2007, 05:56 AM
On 04.08.1944, Anne Frank, known for her diary written while hiding during German occupation, and her family were arrested by Germans following a tip-off from an informer who was never identified.

The members of the household were taken to the Gestapo headquarters where they were interrogated and held overnight. On 05.08., they were transferred to the Huis van Bewaring (House of Detention), an overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans. Two days later the eight Jewish prisoners were transported to Westerbork, The Netherlands. Ostensibly a transit camp, by this time more than 100,000 Jews had passed through it. Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and were sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labor.

On 03.09., the group was deported on what would be the last transport from Westerbork to the Auschwitz concentration camp. They arrived after a three days' journey, and were separated by gender, with the men and women never to see each other again. Of the 1019 passengers, 549 people-–including all children under the age of fifteen years-–were selected and sent directly to the gas chambers where they were killed. Anne had turned fifteen three months earlier and was spared, and although everyone from the Achterhuis survived this selection, Anne believed her father had been killed.

On 28.10., selections began for women to be relocated to Bergen-Belsen. More than 8,000 women, including Anne and Margot Frank and Auguste van Pels, were transported, but Edith Frank was left behind. Tents were erected to accommodate the influx of prisoners, Anne and Margot among them, and as the population rose, the death toll due to disease increased rapidly. Anne was briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar (nicknamed "Lies" in the diary) and Nanette Blitz, both of whom survived the war. Blitz described her as bald, emaciated and shivering. Goslar said that although Anne was ill herself, she told her that she was more concerned about Margot, whose illness seemed to be more severe and who remained in her bunk, too weak to walk. Anne told both her close friends that she believed her parents were dead.

In March 1945, a typhus epidemic spread through the camp killing an estimated 17,000 prisoners. Witnesses later testified that Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock, and that a few days later Anne was dead too, at the age of 15. They estimated that this occurred a few weeks before the camp was liberated by British troops on 15.04.1945, although the exact dates were not recorded. The camp, after liberation, had to be burned due to the epidemic, and Anne and Margot were buried in a mass grave, the exact whereabouts of which are unknown.


Captain Hornblower
08-05-2007, 08:17 AM
Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on 01.06.1926), a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, model and pop icon, was found dead in her house in Brentwood by her housekeeper. Her death was ruled as an overdose of sleeping pills. Questions remain about the circumstances and timeline of housekeeper Eunice Murray's discovery of Monroe's body. Also, some conspiracy theories involve John and Robert Kennedy. The official cause of her death was "probable suicide".

On 08.08.1962, Marilyn was interred in a crypt at Corridor of Memories, #24, at the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles, California. Lee Strasberg delivered the eulogy.


Captain Hornblower
08-05-2007, 08:44 AM
On 05.08.1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed the area as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I. At the time, he found 16 English ships with 20 French and Portuguese vessels using the harbour. There was no permanent population, however, and Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, thereby ending any immediate plans of settlement. The Newfoundland National War Memorial is located on the waterfront in St. John's, at the purported site of Gilbert's landing and proclamation. The first permanent European settlers arrived at St. John's in 1605.

Captain Hornblower
08-05-2007, 08:52 AM
On 05.08.2003, a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb outside the lobby of the JW Marriott Hotel, killing twelve people and injuring 150. All those killed were Indonesian with the exception of one Dutch businessman. The hotel was viewed as a Western symbol, and had been used by the United States embassy for various events. The hotel was closed for five weeks and reopened to the public on 8 September.


08-06-2007, 03:46 AM
Following prolonged strategic bombing of Japan during World War II, first combat use of a nuclear weapon was conducted by the United States. A B-29 bomber dropped a single Mk-I "Little Boy" atomic bomb over Hiroshima, estimated population 285,000. The Mk-I was a gun-type nuclear gravity bomb using highly enriched uranium. It detonated 580 meters over central Hiroshima at 8:15 AM local time with a yield estimated at 15 kilotons. The airburst height was selected to maximize the extent of prompt effects and to minimize residual radiation (fallout). Individuals at ground zero received combined gamma and neutron doses of perhaps 80,000 rad, although flash and blast would have been immediately fatal. The thermal flash produced fires which merged into a firestorm, razing much of the city. Flash, blast, and prompt radiation killed most people within 1.5 km of ground zero; immediate fatalities were generally from flash and blast injuries, with many otherwise injured and uninjured dying of fatal prompt radiation doses over the following weeks and months. Small numbers of people were injured by residual radiations (neutron-induced radioactivity and residual material from the weapon).

On the day of the bombing, an estimated 348,000 people were in Hiroshima, including 265,000 Japanese residents, 20,000 Korean residents, 12,000 conscripted Japanese workers, 3,000 conscripted Korean workers, 48,000 Japanese soldiers, and a small number of prisoners of war. Casualty figures are uncertain, despite many surveys (some figures presented here are extrapolated from partial surveys). Among civilians, possibly 44,000 to 59,000 were killed the day of the bombing, with another 17,000 missing. Subsequent deaths include about 25,000 through the end of August 1945, 9,000 in September 1945, 2,000 in October-December 1945, and 2,500 in 1946. Many of these subsequent deaths involved radiation injuries. Deaths among survivors after 1946 include greater fractions from natural causes. Less information is available regarding military fatalites, but at least 9,000 soldiers died through the end of 1946. The estimated 130,000 fatalities to 1950 include about 111,000 Japanese civilians, 12,000 Japanese soldiers, and 6,500 Koreans. After 1950, deaths attributed to radiation include about 60 leukaemia deaths, 300 other cancer deaths, and 145 non-cancer deaths. New cases of leukaemia peaked in 1951.

Those injured in the bombing numbered (through August 1946) 30,500 severely injured and 48,600 slightly injured. These figures do not include a possible 7,000 injuries among military personnel. Of 2,160 medical personnel in Hiroshima at the time of the bombing, 1,980 were killed or injured. Emergency response was supported by the arrival of about 3,270 medical personnel from surrounding areas and other parts of Japan, along with another 2,910 relief workers. An additional 40,000 to 60,000 are registered as having entered Hiroshima shortly after the bombing. Survivor registries include 2,300 individuals exposed in utero. Studies suggest that excess miscarriages and fetal deaths numbered in the dozens, and excess infant deaths (for those exposed in utero) also in the dozens. About 45 cases of microcephaly are known among those exposed in utero, including at least 15 with mental retardation.

Portions of Hiroshima with little or no damage were continuously inhabited, and the city was rebuilt. Hiroshima reattained its pre-attack population by 1954 and had a population of 1,066,000 in 1992.

Consequences: Estimated 130,000 fatalities (of which perhaps 40,000 are related to ionizing radiation injuries) and 86,000 injuries.


Captain Hornblower
08-06-2007, 02:59 PM
On 06.08.1932, the major of the City of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer (later he became the first Bundeskanzler of the Federal Republic of Germany), opended Germanys first Autobahn.

The 18 km long track connects the cities Cologne and Bonn has the number A555. It was built from 1929 till 1932.

Captain Hornblower
08-06-2007, 03:12 PM
On August 6, 1890, the first execution by the electric chair was carried out at Auburn Prison. Inmate William Kemmler, sentenced to death for murdering his wife Matilda Ziegler.


Captain Hornblower
08-06-2007, 03:19 PM
The Corinth Canal is a canal connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. It cuts through the Isthmus of Corinth and separates the Peloponnesian peninsula from the Greek mainland and therefore effectively making the former an island.


Captain Hornblower
08-07-2007, 03:51 PM
The Assyrian people who resided in Sumail and its neighbouring area were subjected to a massacre on 07.08.1933, implemented by the Iraqi government. The massacre was the first genocide in Iraq's young history after the establishment of the new Iraqi state in 1921. Close to 3,000 Assyrians died during the 1933 massacre, most of them in the village of Sumail. Thousands were forced to flee to Syria where they currently live in 33 villages of the Khabur area, in the Al Jazeera region.

August 7 officially became known as Martyrs Day or National Day of Mourning by the Assyrian community in memory for the Simele massacre, as it was declared so by the Assyrian Universal Alliance in 1970.


Captain Hornblower
08-07-2007, 04:07 PM
Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, United States of America (USA). It officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue.

In 1920, Love's land was sold in public auction to the City of Niagara Falls, who used the undeveloped area as a landfill for chemical waste disposal. At the time, the canal was an ideal site for this purpose; the ground was largely impermeable clay, and the surrounding area was sparsely populated.

In 1942, Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation (which became a subsidiary of Occidental Petroleum in 1968) expanded use of the site, and, by 1947, acquired the land for private use. In the subsequent five year period, the company buried about 22,000 tons of toxic waste in the area. Once the site had been filled to capacity in 1952, Hooker closed the site, back-filled the canal, and covered it over with four feet of clay.

At the time of the closure, Niagara Falls' population had begun to expand. The local school board was desperate for land, and attempted to purchase an area of expensive property from Hooker Chemical that had not yet been used to bury toxic waste. The corporation refused to sell on the grounds of safety, and took members of the school board to the canal and drilled several bore holes through the clay, showing that there were toxic chemicals below the surface, however the board refused to capitulate. Eventually, faced with the property being condemned and/or expropriated, Hooker Chemical agreed to sell on the condition that the board buy the entire property for a dollar.

Shortly thereafter, the board began construction on the 99th Street School in its originally intended location. However, the building site was forced to relocate when contractors unearthed two pits filled with chemicals. The new location was directly on top of the former landfill, and during construction, contractors broke through the clay seal that Hooker had installed to contain the chemical waste.

In 1957, the City of Niagara Falls constructed sewers for a mixture of low-income and single family residences to be built on lands adjacent to the landfill site. During construction of the gravel sewer beds, the clay seal was broken again, the walls of the canal were breached, and chemicals seeped from the canal. The construction of the LaSalle Expressway restricted groundwater from flowing to the Niagara River. Following the wet winter and spring of 1977, the elevated expressway turned the breached canal into an overflowing pool.

In 1978, Lois Gibbs, a local mother and president of the Love Canal Homeowners' Association, began to wonder if her children's recurring epilepsy, asthma, and urinary tract infections[4] were connected to their exposure to leaking chemical waste. Gibbs later discovered that her neighborhood sat on top of 21,000 tons of buried chemical waste, the now infamous Love Canal.

In the following years, Gibbs led an effort to investigate community concerns about the health of its residents; she and other residents made repeated complaints of strange odors and "substances" that surfaced in their yards. City officials were brought to investigate the area, but did not act to solve the problem.

The lack of public interest in Love Canal made matters worse for the homeowners' association, which now battled two organizations spending vast amounts of money to disprove negligence. Initially, members of the organization had been frustrated by the lack of a public entity that could advise and defend them. Gibbs met with considerable public resistance to attempts to organize the community, and the mostly middle-class families did not have the resources to protect themselves, and many did not see any alternative other than abandoning their homes at a loss.

By 1978, Love Canal had become a national media event with articles referring to the neighborhood as "a public health time bomb," and "one of the most appalling environmental tragedies in American history."

On August 7, 1978, United States President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at Love Canal, and those living closest to the site were relocated.


08-07-2007, 04:16 PM
The first british Grand Prix was held at Brooklands Airfield. It was opened on june 7. 1907 and the races stopped after WW II because the cars were too fast for this track.

This first British Grand Prix was won by Louis Wagner and Robert Senechal driving a Delage 155B.



08-07-2007, 04:26 PM
Queen Victoria declares Ottawa as canadian capital. Became Capital of the new Dominion of Canada in 1867. Designated 1976.


08-07-2007, 10:14 PM
Jacques Balmat and doctor Michel Paccard were the first who succeded to climb up the Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in western Europe and the Alps on the border of France and Italy.


08-07-2007, 10:31 PM
In 1900 Dwight Davis, then a fourth-year student of nearby Harvard University, arranged for a British team visit Longwood and compete for what became the first Davis Cup tie, branded the International Lawn Tennis Challenge. The Davis-captained Americans won the inaugural contest 3-0.



08-07-2007, 10:44 PM
President Nixon announced in a live broadcast that he resign as Presiden of the USA after the Watergate Scandal. Gerald Ford took over office as new US President.

On June 17, 1972, Frank Wills, a security guard at the Watergate Complex, noticed tape covering the locks on several doors in the complex. He called the police and within minutes, five men were arrested inside the Democratic National Committee's office. The five men were Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James W. McCord, Jr., Eugenio Martínez and Frank Sturgis. The five were charged with attempted burglary and attempted interception of telephone and other communications. On September 15, a grand jury indicted them and two other men for conspiracy, burglary and violation of federal wiretapping laws. The two others were: E. Howard Hunt, Jr. and Gordon Liddy. In March 1973, James McCord wrote a letter to Judge John J. Sirica charging a massive cover up of the burglary. His letter transformed the affair into a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude.

The connection between the break-in and the President's re-election campaign fundraising committee was highlighted by its media coverage. In particular, investigative coverage by The Washington Post and The New York Times fueled focus on the event. The coverage dramatically increased the profile of the crime and consequent political stakes. Fed tips by an anonymous source (W. Mark Felt) they would later identify only by the code name "Deep Throat," Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered information suggesting that knowledge of the break-in and attempts to cover it up led deep into the Justice Department, the FBI, the CIA, and even the White House itself. Rather than ending with the trial and conviction of the burglars, the investigations grew broader; a Senate committee chaired by Senator Sam Ervin was set up to examine Watergate and started to subpoena White House staff.

On April 30, 1973, Nixon was forced to ask for the resignation of two of his most influential aides, H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, both of whom would soon be indicted and ultimately go to prison. He also fired White House Counsel John Dean, who had just testified before the Senate and would go on to become the key witness against the President.

On the same day, Nixon appointed a new Attorney General, Elliot Richardson, and gave him authority to designate, for the growing Watergate inquiry, a special counsel who would be independent of the regular Justice Department hierarchy, to preserve his independence. On May 19, 1973, Richardson named Archibald Cox to the position. Televised hearings had begun two days before.

1976 the famous movie "All the President's Men" starring Robert Redford as Woodward and Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein was made telling the story of this case.


Captain Hornblower
08-08-2007, 04:05 AM
The Great Train Robbery is the name given to a £2.6 million train robbery committed on 8 August 1963 at Bridego Railway Bridge, Ledburn near Mentmore in Buckinghamshire, England. The bulk of the stolen money was not recovered. This was probably the largest value, in comparison, robbery in British history - until the Securitas depot robbery of 2006 in Kent.



08-09-2007, 10:29 AM
At 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945 an atomic bomb exploded 500 meters above this spot. The black stone monolith marks the hypocenter.
The fierce blast wind, heat rays reaching several thousand degrees, and deadly radiation generated by the explosion crushed, burned and killed everything in sight and reduced this entire area to a barren field of rubble.
About one-third of Nagasaki City was destroyed and 150,000 people killed or injured, and it was said at the time that this area would be devoid of vegetation for 75 years. Now, the hypocenter remains as an international peace park and a symbol of the aspiration for world harmony.


Let us pray, that these events will never come again.

Captain Hornblower
08-09-2007, 02:57 PM
The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. Its fame rests on its architecture, which evokes Solomon's Temple of the Old Testament, its decoration, frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists, including Michelangelo whose ceiling is legendary, and its purpose, as a site of papal religious and functionary activity, notably the conclave, at which a new Pope is selected.
The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.


Captain Hornblower
08-09-2007, 02:59 PM
The Battle of Cedar Mountain, also known as Slaughter's Mountain or Cedar Run, took place on August 9, 1862, in Culpeper County, Virginia, as part of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War.


Captain Hornblower
08-09-2007, 02:59 PM
As a direct result of the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office. His Vice President, Gerald Ford, becomes president.


Captain Hornblower
08-09-2007, 03:07 PM
The Hoddle Street massacre is the name given to a mass murder that occurred on the evening of Sunday, August 9, 1987 in Hoddle Street, Clifton Hill, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia. The shootings resulted in the deaths of 7 people, and serious injury to 19 others.

After a police chase lasting more than 30 minutes, 19 year old former Australian Army officer-cadet Julian Knight was caught in nearby Fitzroy North and arrested for the shootings. Knight was later sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum non-parole period of 27 years for the bloodiest massacre in Australian history since the Sydney Milperra massacre in September 1984, where six men and a 17-year-old youth were killed. Knight couldn't receive a life sentence without parole because at the time Victoria did not have such a sentence also as he was between 18-21 he was classed as a young offender under Victorian law. This required for him to have a chance at rehabilitation.


Captain Hornblower
08-10-2007, 05:47 PM
Diogo Dias, also known as Diogo Gomes, was a 15th century Portuguese explorer. He discovered some of the Cape Verde islands together with António Noli. Accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral in the discovery of Brazil, being one of the captains of the fleet. On August 10, 1500, his ship, separated by weather, discovered an island they named after St Lawrence after the saint on whose feast day they had first sighted the island later known as Madagascar. He then returned to Portugal.


Captain Hornblower
08-10-2007, 05:50 PM
Originally part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, Missouri was admitted as a state on 10.08.1821 as part of the Missouri Compromise. It earned the nickname "Gateway to the West" because it served as a departure point for settlers heading to the west. It was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.


Captain Hornblower
08-10-2007, 06:06 PM
Vasa (or Wasa[2]) is a 64-gun warship, built for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden 1626-1628. She foundered after sailing only a mile into her maiden voyage on 10 August 1628. After years of searching and preparation from 1956, Vasa was salvaged with a largely intact hull on 24 April 1961. She was housed in a temporary museum called Wasavarvet ("The Wasa Shipyard") until 1987, and was then moved to the Vasa Museum in Stockholm. The ship is one Sweden's most popular tourist attractions and has so far attracted over 25 million visitors.


08-11-2007, 08:16 PM
After WW I and the resign of the german Emperor Wilhelm II and he went to exile in the Netherlands, the new Weimar Republic or Deutsches Reich was established.

The republic was named after the german city of Weimar where a national assembly convened to predict a new constitution.

The first President was Friedrich Ebert until 1925 followed by Paul van Hindenburg until 1933 when Hitler took over and ended the Weimar Republik and the Third Reich began.


08-11-2007, 11:34 PM
1934 Alcatraz, in San Francisco Bay, received its first federal prisoners.

08-11-2007, 11:36 PM
1966 Chevy Camero is introduced Selling price $2633.00 USD

08-12-2007, 08:10 AM
In July of 1980, IBM representatives met for the first time with Microsoft's Bill Gates to talk about writing an operating system for IBM's new hush-hush "personal" computer. IBM had been observing the growing personal computer market for some time. They had already made one dismal attempt to crack the market with their IBM 5100. At one point, IBM considered buying the fledgling game company Atari to commandeer Atari's early line of personal computers. However, IBM decided to stick with making their own personal computer line and developed a brand new operating system to go with. The secret plans were referred to as "Project Chess". The code name for the new computer was "Acorn". Twelve engineers, led by William C. Lowe, assembled in Boca Raton, Florida, to design and build the "Acorn". On August 12, 1981, IBM released their new computer, re-named the IBM PC. The "PC" stood for "personal computer" making IBM responsible for popularizing the term "PC".

The first IBM PC ran on a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor. The PC came equipped with 16 kilobytes of memory, expandable to 256k. The PC came with one or two 160k floppy disk drives and an optional color monitor. The price tag started at $1,565, which would be nearly $4,000 today. What really made the IBM PC different from previous IBM computers was that it was the first one built from off the shelf parts (called open architecture) and marketed by outside distributors (Sears & Roebucks and Computerland). The Intel chip was chosen because IBM had already obtained the rights to manufacture the Intel chips. IBM had used the Intel 8086 for use in its Displaywriter Intelligent Typewriter in exchange for giving Intel the rights to IBM's bubble memory technology.

Less than four months after IBM introduced the PC, Time Magazine named the computer "man of the year"



08-14-2007, 08:17 PM
On June 15, 1961, two months before the construction of the Berlin Wall started, Walter Ulbricht stated in an international press conference, "Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten!" (No one has the intention to set up a wall). It was the first time the colloquial term Mauer (wall) had been used in this context.

The night of August 12, 1961, the leaders of East Germany attended a garden party at Döllnsee, formerly the hunting grounds of Hermann Göring. Construction of 45 km (28 miles) around the three western sectors began early on Sunday, August 13, 1961 in East Berlin. The zonal boundary had been sealed that morning by East German troops. The barrier was built by East German troops and workers, not directly involving the Soviets. It was built slightly inside East German territory to ensure that it did not encroach on West Berlin at any point; if one stood next to the West Berlin side of the barrier (and later the Wall), one was actually standing on East Berlin soil. Some streets running alongside the barrier were torn up to make them impassable to most vehicles, and a barbed-wire fence was erected, which was later built up into the full-scale Wall. It physically divided the city and completely surrounded West Berlin. During the construction of the Wall, NVA and KdA soldiers stood in front of it with orders to shoot anyone who attempted to defect. Additionally, the whole length of the border between East and West Germany was closed with chain fences, walls, minefields, and other installations (see GDR border system).




08-14-2007, 08:22 PM
The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive power outage that occurred throughout parts of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, and Ontario, Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003. Although not affecting as many people as the later 2003 Italy blackout, it was the largest blackout in North American history. It affected an estimated 10 million people in the province of Ontario (about one-third of the population of Canada), and 40 million people in eight U.S. states (about one-seventh of the population of the U.S.). Outage-related financial losses were estimated at $6 billion USD ($6.8 billion CDN).


08-14-2007, 08:54 PM
On August 14, the shipyard workers began their strike, organized by the Free Trade Unions of the Coast (Wolne Związki Zawodowe Wybrzeża). The workers were led by electrician Lech Wałęsa, a former shipyard worker who had been dismissed in 1976, and who arrived at the shipyard late in the morning of August 14. The strike committee demanded the rehiring of Walentynowicz and Wałęsa, as well as the according of respect to workers' rights and other social concerns. In addition, they called for the raising of a monument to the shipyard workers who had been killed in 1970 and for the legalization of independent trade unions.

The Polish government enforced censorship, and official media said little about the "sporadic labor disturbances in Gdańsk"; as a further precaution, all phone connections between the coast and the rest of Poland were soon cut. Nonetheless, the government failed to contain the information: a spreading wave of samizdats (Polish: bibuła), including Robotnik (The Worker), and grapevine gossip, along with Radio Free Europe broadcasts that penetrated the Iron Curtain, ensured that the ideas of the emerging Solidarity movement quickly spread.

Finally the Solidarnosc was founded in september 1980.

This was the beginning of the fall of the communist regimes in Europe which happened 1989 when the Berlin Wall fell.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Solidarity#Early_strikes_.281980.E2.80. 9381.29




08-16-2007, 02:12 PM
On this day 30 years ago the King of Rock 'n roll, Elvis Presley, was found dead in his Memphis home, Graceland.

He was born january 8th. 1935 in Tupelo MS



08-17-2007, 05:33 AM
On this day in 1987 Northwest Flight 255 ( McDonnell Douglas MD-82 aircraft ) that took off from Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Romulus, Michigan near Detroit, crashed immediately after take off as the aircraft was not properly configured for takeoff and the pilot did not get the info due to Electrical system failure.
Miraculously a 4 yr old girl was the only survivor. 148 passengers plus a crew of 6 and 2 on ground died.

Wikimapia link : http://www.wikimapia.org/#lat=42.241767&lon=-83.327329&z=18&l=0&m=a&v=2


08-17-2007, 10:16 AM
USAF ( Not NASA, NASA was formed in October of 1958 ) attempted to send 1st lunar probe 'PIONEER-0' using a Thor-Able Launch Vehicle from Cape Canaveral site. Pioneer weighed 38 kg (83 lb). But due to the explosion of 1st stage the rocket disintegrated 77 seconds after liftoff.


08-17-2007, 02:25 PM
On this day the first CD recordings rolled off the assembly line. They were reaching the market in late 1982 in Asia, and early the following year in the United States and other markets. The first CDs available were 16 Japanese-made titles from CBS/Sony.
This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution. The new audio disc was enthusiastically received, especially in the early-adopting classical music and audiophile communities and its handling quality received particular praise. As the price of players sank rapidly, the CD began to gain popularity in the larger popular and rock music markets.

The new thing in this idea was, you don't have to turn your record on the other side whe one side was done. You play the whole record at one time. And the quality was much better than the old known LP.

The record was read by a laser device instead of the usual diamond needle.

The first release was ABBA's The Visitors.


08-18-2007, 01:09 PM
On this day in in 1969 Jimi Hendrix plays the last day of woodstock.

08-18-2007, 01:57 PM
Virginia Dare became the first child to be born on American soil of English parents. The colony that is now Roanoke Island, NC, mysteriously vanished.


08-18-2007, 02:01 PM
James Meredith graduated from the University of Mississippi. He was the first black man to accomplish this feat.


08-19-2007, 09:10 AM
1934 : Adolf Hitler was given the sole executive power and was designated as Fuhrer.

1960 : Soviet spaceship,Sputnik 5, carried aboard 2 dogsand 3 mice into orbit which were later recovered alive.


08-19-2007, 09:27 AM
Collapse of the Soviet Union: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Crimea.


08-19-2007, 09:33 AM
In Moscow, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.


08-19-2007, 09:44 AM
Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist Prime Minister in 42 years.



08-20-2007, 05:20 PM
This day appears to be the day of Firsts.

1896 .. Telephone with a dial wheel was patented
1913 P Adolph becomes the 1st pilot to parachute from an aircraft
1920 Detroit, 8MK (WWJ), becomes the 1st radio station to broadcasting daily commercial programs
1947 Turner Caldwell in D-558-I sets aircraft speed record of 1131 kph.
1957 USAF ballon climbs to 102,000' (310,896 m) to break an altitude record.
1975 Viking 1 launched toward Mars for a soft landing on the surface.
1977 NASA launches Voyager 2 towards Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune ( It continues to explore to this day, and is now more than 7 billion miles from Earth.)


Captain Hornblower
08-20-2007, 05:31 PM
1957 USAF ballon climbs to 102,000' (310,896 m) to break an altitude record.

Make it 31,089 m ;)

08-20-2007, 05:34 PM
200,000 Warsaw Pact troops and 5,000 tanks invade Czechoslovakia to end the "Prague Spring" of political liberalization. Next day it was over with the czech dreams of freedom after they began their revolution on january 5th 1968.


08-22-2007, 07:37 AM
1864, Aug 22nd :

12 nations meeting in Geneva adopted resolution for the formation of a neutral body of medical personnel to take care of Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field.

Proposal was put forth by Jean-Henri Dunant a Swiss humanitarian. In honor of Dunant's nationality, a red cross on a white background--the Swiss flag in reverse--was chosen. Later he was awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize.




08-24-2007, 01:19 PM
Mount Vesuvius erupts. The cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae are buried in volcanic ash.







08-24-2007, 01:21 PM
The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible or the Mazarin Bible) is a printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in the fifteenth century. Although it is not, as often thought, the first book to be printed by Gutenberg's new movable type system, it is his major work, and has iconic status as the start of the "Gutenberg Revolution" and the "Age of the Printed Book".

The detailed format of printed bible is a possible imitation of a Mainz illuminated manuscript, the so called Giant Bible of Mainz (Biblia latina), whose 1300 pages were written between 1452 and 1453.


08-24-2007, 01:25 PM
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) was a wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of Charles IX. Starting on August 24, 1572, with the murder of a prominent Huguenot, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the massacres spread throughout Paris, and later to other cities and the countryside, lasting for several months. The exact number of fatalities is not known, but it is estimated that several thousand or possibly tens of thousands of Huguenots died in the violence. Though by no means unique, "it was the worst of the century's religious massacres." [1] The massacres marked a turning-point in the French Wars of Religion by radicalising the Huguenot faction.


08-24-2007, 01:27 PM
It is believed that the original potato chip recipe was created by Native American/African American chef George Crum, at Moon's Lake House near Saratoga Springs, New York, on August 24, 1853. He was fed up with a customer — by some accounts Cornelius Vanderbilt (although this has been called into question) — who continued to send his fried potatoes back, because he thought they were too thick and soggy. Crum decided to slice the potatoes so thin that they couldn't be eaten with a fork, nor fried normally in a pan, so he decided to stir-fry the potato slices. Against Crum's expectation, the guest was ecstatic about the new chips. They became a regular item on the lodge's menu under the name "Saratoga Chips." They soon became popular throughout New England. Eventually, potato chips spread beyond chef-cooked restaurant fare and began to be mass produced for home consumption; Dayton, Ohio-based Mike-sell's Potato Chip Company, founded in 1910, calls itself the "oldest potato chip company in the United States".

Before the airtight sealed bag was developed, chips were stored in barrels or tins. The chips at the bottom were often stale and damp. Then Laura Scudder invented the bag by ironing together two pieces of waxed paper, thereby creating an airtight seal and keeping the chips fresh until opened. In 1934 Akron, Ohio, potato chip maker K.T. Salem was the first to distribute chips in glassine waxed paper bags. Today, chips are packaged in plastic bags, with nitrogen gas blown in prior to sealing to lengthen shelf life, and provide protection against crushing.


08-24-2007, 01:30 PM
The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States that occurred in 1857. The downturn was brief and the recovery strong, so that the impact was small. Over 5,000 businesses failed within a year. Unemployment was accompanied by protest meetings in urban areas.


08-24-2007, 01:37 PM
Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. It was released on August 24, 1995 by Microsoft, and was a significant progression from the company's previous Windows products. During development it was referred to as Windows 4.0 or by the internal codename Chicago.

Windows 95 was intended to integrate Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products and includes an enhanced version of DOS, often referred to as MS-DOS 7.0. It features significant improvements over the popular Windows 3.1, most visibly the graphical user interface (GUI) whose basic format and structure is still used in later versions such as Windows Vista. There were also large changes made to the underlying workings, including support for 255-character mixed-case long filenames and preemptively multitasked protected-mode 32-bit applications. Whereas its predecessors are optional "operating environments" requiring the MS-DOS operating system (usually available separately), Windows 95 is a consolidated operating system, which was a significant marketing change.


Captain Hornblower
08-25-2007, 06:22 PM
On 25.08.1718 French emigrants founded the city of New Orleans.

Captain Hornblower
08-25-2007, 06:25 PM
The Treaty of Peace with Germany is often used to describe the separate post-World War I peace accord of August 25, 1921 between the United States and Germany following the U.S. Senate's rejection of parts of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and Warren G. Harding's defeat of League of Nations advocate James M. Cox in the 1920 presidential election.


Captain Hornblower
08-26-2007, 04:56 PM
On July 2, 1839, Africans being carried aboard La Amistad from Havana were led by fellow captive Joseph Cinqué in a revolt against their captors. Their transport from Africa to the Americas was illegal, and they were fraudulently described as having been born in Cuba. After the revolt, the Africans demanded to be returned home, but the ship’s navigator deceived them about their course, and sailed them north along the North American coast to Long Island, New York. The schooner was subsequently taken into custody by the United States Navy; and the Africans, who were deemed salvage from the vessel, were taken to Connecticut to be sold as slaves. There ensued a widely publicized court case about the ship and the legal status of the African captives. This incident figured prominently in abolitionism in the United States.


Captain Hornblower
08-26-2007, 05:05 PM
The 19th amendment was specifically intended to extend suffrage to women. It was proposed on June 4, 1919 and ratified on August 18, 1920.

The amendment was the culmination of the work of many activists in favor of women's suffrage. One such group called the Silent Sentinels protested in front of the White House for 18 months starting in 1917 to raise awareness of the issue.

On January 9, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson announced his support of the amendment. The next day, the House of Representatives narrowly passed the amendment but the Senate refused to even debate it until October. When the Senate voted on the amendment in October, it failed by three votes.

In response, the National Woman's Party urged citizens to vote against anti-suffrage senators up for election in the fall of 1918. After the 1918 election, most members of Congress were pro-suffrage. On May 21, 1919, the House of Representatives passed the amendment by a vote of 304 to 89, and 2 weeks later on June 4, the Senate finally followed, where the amendment passed by a vote of 56 to 25.

It was ratified on August 18, 1920, upon its ratification by Tennessee, the thirty-sixth state to do so. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified the ratification on August 26, 1920.

Captain Hornblower
08-26-2007, 05:09 PM
Sigmund Jähn became first German cosmonaut. In 1976 he was selected together with his later backup Eberhard Köllner to train as the first cosmonaut in the Intercosmos program. He trained in Star City near Moscow for the next two years, and finally flew on board Soyuz 31 to the Soviet space station Salyut 6, and returned with Soyuz 29. For this flight, he was celebrated as the first German cosmonaut, which is remarkable as in those days, both East and West Germany normally stressed that people who achieved similar deeds were citizens of their respective states. He spent 7 days, 20 hours, and 49 minutes in space.


Captain Hornblower
08-27-2007, 09:46 AM
The Anglo-Zanzibar War was fought between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar on 27 August 1896. With a duration of only 45 minutes (09:00 - 09:45), it holds the record of being the shortest war in recorded history.


Captain Hornblower
08-27-2007, 09:49 AM
The Heinkel He 178 was the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, and the first practical jet plane, the pioneering example of this type of aircraft. It was a private venture by the German Heinkel company in accordance with director Ernst Heinkel's emphasis on developing technology for high-speed flight and first flew on August 27, 1939 piloted by Erich Warsitz. This had been preceded by a short hop three days earlier.


08-27-2007, 01:48 PM
On this day, August 27th, in 1883 the eruption of Krakatau ended with one final explosion.

The 1883 eruption ejected more than 25 cubic kilometres of rock, ash, and pumice, and generated the loudest sound historically reported: the cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard as far away as Perth in Australia approx. 1,930 miles (3,110 km), and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius approx. 3,000 miles (5,000 km). Near Krakatoa, according to official records, 165 villages and towns were destroyed and 132 seriously damaged, at least 36,417 (official toll) people died, and many thousands were injured by the eruption, mostly from the tsunamis which followed the explosion.

The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa is among the most violent volcanic events in modern times (a VEI of 6, equivalent to 200 megatons of TNT — about 13,000 times the yield of the Little Boy bomb which devastated Hiroshima, Japan). Concussive air waves from the explosions traveled seven times around the world, and were detectable for five days. The sky was darkened for days afterwards. Sea waves caused by the eruption were recorded as far away as the English Channel. The explosion is considered to be among the loudest noises ever heard by humans.

Captain Hornblower
08-28-2007, 08:24 PM
St. Augustine was founded by the Spanish in 1565. In all the territory under the jurisdiction of the United States, only settlements in Puerto Rico are older than St. Augustine, with the oldest being San Juan, founded in 1512.

Captain Hornblower
08-28-2007, 08:28 PM
The 19-year-old Jim Casey founded the American Messenger Company in Seattle, Washington with $100 borrowed from a friend. The first main service was the delivery of opium, which was fully legal in the country at that time.


Captain Hornblower
08-28-2007, 08:31 PM
"I Have a Dream" is the popular name given to the historic public speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., when he spoke of his desire for a future where blacks and whites would coexist harmoniously as equals. King's delivery of the speech on August 28, 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Delivered to over 200,000 civil rights supporters, the speech is often considered to be one of the greatest and most notable speeches in history and was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century by a 1999 poll of scholars of public address.


Captain Hornblower
08-29-2007, 07:32 AM
The inspiration for arguably the first motorcycle was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885. The first petroleum-powered vehicle, it was essentially a motorised bicycle, although the inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car").


Captain Hornblower
08-29-2007, 07:34 AM
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. Today it is the third largest tire company in the world after Bridgestone and Michelin. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, race cars, airplanes, and heavy machinery. In addition it makes rubber hoses, shoe soles, and parts for electric printers. The company has also been extensively involved in the aerospace, military, and hardware technology industries.

Although the company was not connected with him, it was named in honor of Charles Goodyear. Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber in 1839. The first Goodyear Tires became popular because they were easily detachable and low maintenance.

Goodyear is famous throughout the world because of the Goodyear blimp. The blimp came from Goodyear's attempts to enter the Aircraft and Aerospace industries after World War II. Today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America.


Captain Hornblower
08-29-2007, 07:37 AM
Joe-1 (or Joe One; USSR version РДС-1, RDS-1) was the American codename for the first Soviet nuclear weapon test, in reference to Joseph Stalin, the Soviet leader. The bomb was tested on August 29, 1949 at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

The yield was 22 kilotons of TNT, similar to the United States' "Gadget" and "Fat Man" bombs. At Lavrenty Beria's insistence, it was similar to the design of the American "Fat Man", which had been dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. It was called First Lightning (Первая молния, Pervaya molniya) by the Soviets. Its development was years ahead of American military-intelligence projections and came as quite a shock to the United States.


Captain Hornblower
08-29-2007, 07:43 AM
The premiere of the three-movement 4′33″ was given by David Tudor on August 29, 1952, at Woodstock, New York as part of a recital of contemporary piano music. The audience saw him sit at the piano and, to mark the beginning of the piece, close the keyboard lid. Some time later he opened it briefly, to mark the end of the first movement. This process was repeated for the second and third movements. The piece had passed without a note being played—in fact without Tudor (or anyone else) having made any deliberate sound as part of the piece. Tudor timed the three movements with a stopwatch while turning the pages of the score.


Captain Hornblower
08-30-2007, 05:00 PM
Hong Kong is liberated from Japan by British Armed Forces.

As part of its military campaign in World War II, the Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong on December 8, 1941. The Battle of Hong Kong ended with British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the colony to Japan on December 25. During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, civilians suffered from widespread food shortages caused by imposed rations, and hyper-inflation due to forced exchange of currency for military notes. Hong Kong's population declined from 1.6 million before the invasion to about 600,000 in 1945, when the United Kingdom resumed control of the colony following Japan's defeat in the war.


Captain Hornblower
08-30-2007, 05:05 PM
Space Shuttle Discovery (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of three spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with Atlantis and Endeavour. First flown in 1984, Discovery is the third operational Space Shuttle and the oldest shuttle in service. Discovery has performed both research and International Space Station (ISS) assembly missions.


08-31-2007, 04:44 PM
On 31 August 1997, Diana died after a high speed car accident in the Pont d'Alma road tunnel in Paris along with Dodi Al-Fayed and the Acting Security Manager of the Hôtel Ritz Paris, Henri Paul, who was instructed to drive the hired Mercedes-Benz through Paris secretly eluding the paparazzi.[13] Blood analysis showed that Henri Paul was illegally intoxicated with alcohol whilst driving.




08-31-2007, 04:51 PM
The Gleiwitz incident was a staged attack on 31 August 1939 against the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia, Germany (since 1945: Gliwice, Republic of Poland) on the eve of World War II in Europe.

This provocation was one of several actions in Operation Himmler, a Nazi Germany project to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which would be used to justify the subsequent invasion of Poland.



08-31-2007, 05:01 PM
The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) is a revolutionary work of musical theatre, by German dramatist Bertolt Brecht and composer Kurt Weill, in collaboration with translator Elisabeth Hauptmann, adapted from an 18th century English ballad opera, John Gay's The Beggar's Opera. Premiering on August 31, 1928, at Berlin's Schiffbauerdamm Theatre, Die Dreigroschenoper offers a socialist critique of the capitalist world.

The most famous is Mackie Messer or in English Mack the Knife




Captain Hornblower
09-01-2007, 12:49 PM
Following a German-staged "Polish attack" on August 31, 1939, on September 1, German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west. Spread thin defending their long borders, the Polish armies were soon forced to withdraw east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces then began a withdrawal southeast, following a plan that called for a long defense in the Romanian bridgehead area where the Polish forces were to await an expected Allied counter-attack and relief.

The invasion of Poland marked the start of World War II in Europe as Poland's western allies, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, declared war on Germany on September 3, soon followed by France, South Africa and Canada, among others. The invasion of Poland began September 1, 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and ended October 6, 1939, with Germany and the Soviet Union occupying the entirety of Poland.


Captain Hornblower
09-01-2007, 12:54 PM
The SR-71 set a new record for flying from New York to London: 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds. This is only Mach 2.68, well below the declassified figure of 3.2+. (For comparison, commercial Concorde flights took around 3 hours 23 minutes, and the Boeing 747 averages 6 hours 15 minutes.)


09-01-2007, 02:41 PM
The SR-71 set a new record for flying from New York to London: 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds. This is only Mach 2.68, well below the declassified figure of 3.2+. (For comparison, commercial Concorde flights took around 3 hours 23 minutes, and the Boeing 747 averages 6 hours 15 minutes.)


SR71 Picture taken over snow capped Sierra Nevada mountains from a refueling aircraft.

Captain Hornblower
09-02-2007, 06:33 PM
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London, England, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman City Wall. It threatened, but did not reach, the aristocratic district of Westminster (the modern West End), Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated that it destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's ca. 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll from the fire is unknown and is traditionally thought to have been small, as only a few verified deaths were recorded. This reasoning has recently been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded anywhere, and that the heat of the fire may have cremated many victims, leaving no recognisable remains.

The fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor) in Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, and spread rapidly. The use of the major firefighting technique of the time, the creation of firebreaks by means of demolition, was critically delayed due to the indecisiveness of the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Thomas Bloodworth. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had already fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm which defeated such measures. The fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires. The fears of the homeless focused on the French and Dutch, England's enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War; these substantial immigrant groups became victims of lynchings and street violence. On Tuesday, the fire spread over most of the City, destroying St. Paul's Cathedral and leaping the River Fleet to threaten Charles II's court at Whitehall, while coordinated firefighting efforts were simultaneously mobilising. The battle to quench the fire is considered to have been won by two factors: the strong east winds died down, and the Tower of London garrison used gunpowder to create effective firebreaks to halt further spread eastward.


Captain Hornblower
09-02-2007, 06:39 PM
The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that established the armistice ending the Pacific War and with it World War II. It was signed by representatives from the Empire of Japan, the United States of America, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of Canada, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Dominion of New Zealand on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945. The date is sometimes known as Victory over Japan Day, although that designation is more frequently used to refer to the date of Emperor Hirohito's announcement of the acceptance of the terms of the Potsdam Declaration on August 15.


09-02-2007, 09:42 PM
The Battle of Marathon, Greek Μάχη τοῡ Μαραθῶνος (Mache tou Marathonos), took place in 490 BC and was the culmination of King Darius I of Persia's first full scale attempt to conquer the remainder of Greece and incorporate it into the Persian Empire, to secure the weakest portion of his western border. Most of what is known of this battle comes from Herodotus.

Darius first sent Mardonius, in 492 BC, via a land route to Europe to strengthen Persia's hold of Thrace and Macedon, which had been weakened by the Ionian Revolt. Although successful, most of this force perished in a storm off Mount Athos, and the remainder was forced to return to Asia, losing men along the way.[1] In 490 BC, Datis and Artaphernes were sent in a maritime operation to subjugate the Cyclades islands in the central Aegean and punish Eretria and Athens for their assistance in the Ionian revolt. Eretria was besieged and fell; then the fleet landed in Marathon bay. There they were defeated by a small force of Athenian and Plataean hoplites, despite their numerical advantage. The long run of the messenger who conveyed news of the victory to Athens became the inspiration for the marathon race, which was first staged at the 1896 Olympic Games.


Captain Hornblower
09-05-2007, 03:57 AM
The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization.

By the end of the ordeal, the group had murdered eleven Israeli athletes and one German police officer. Five of the eight terrorists were killed by police officers during an aborted rescue attempt. The three surviving terrorists were captured, and were later released by Germany following the hijacking of a Lufthansa airliner.

Israel responded to the massacre with Operation Wrath of God and Operation Spring of Youth, a series of Israeli air strikes and assassinations of the principal terrorist planners.


Captain Hornblower
09-05-2007, 03:59 AM
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Al Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The Accords led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.


Captain Hornblower
09-05-2007, 04:01 AM
The St. Gotthard Tunnel in Switzerland is the third longest road tunnel in the world (the longest is Lærdalstunnelen, which is 24.6 km (15.3 miles), and the second longest is the Zhongnanshan Tunnel). It runs from Göschenen in the north to Airolo in the south, and is just under 16.4 kilometres (10.5 miles) in length below the St. Gotthard Pass. It links two Swiss cantons: Uri to the north and Ticino to the south.

This road forms part of the shortest road link from Hamburg, Germany to Sicily in Italy.


09-05-2007, 10:08 AM
The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: 鸦片战争; Traditional Chinese: 鴉片戰爭; Pinyin: Yāpiàn Zhànzhēng), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1839-1842 and 1856-1860 respectively)[1] that were the climax of a long dispute between China and Britain. In the second war, France fought alongside Britain. Britain was smuggling opium from British India into China, and when China attempted to enforce her laws against the trade, the conflict erupted.

China succumbed in both wars and was forced to tolerate the opium trade and sign Unequal Treaties opening several ports to foreign trade and yielding Hong Kong to Britain. Several countries followed Britain and forced unequal terms of trade onto China. This humiliation at the hand of foreign powers contributed to the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864), to the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901) and to the eventual downfall of the Qing Dynasty (1911).


Captain Hornblower
09-06-2007, 04:11 PM
The Mayflower was the famous ship that transported the Pilgrims from Plymouth, England, to Plymouth, Massachusetts (which would become the capital of Plymouth Colony) in 1620. The vessel left England on September 6, and after a gruelling journey marked by disease, the ship dropped anchor inside the hook tip of Cape Cod (Provincetown Harbor) on November 11 (dates in Old Style, Julian Calendar). The Mayflower originally was destined for the Hudson River, north of the 1607 Jamestown Settlement. However, the Mayflower went severely off-course as the winter approached and remained in Cape Cod Bay (mapped in 1602 by Gosnold).

On March 21, 1621, all surviving passengers, who had inhabited the ship during the winter, moved ashore as Plymouth Colony, and on April 5, the Mayflower, a privately commissioned vessel, returned to England (details below).

In 1623, a year after the death of captain Christopher Jones, the Mayflower was most likely dismantled for scrap lumber in Rotherhithe, London, England.


Captain Hornblower
09-06-2007, 04:18 PM
Viktor Ivanovich Belenko was a pilot with the 513th Fighter Regiment of the Soviet Anti-Air Defense based in Chuguyevka, Primorsky Krai. His name became known worldwide on September 6th, 1976 when he successfully defected to the West, flying his Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 to Hakodate, Japan. This was the first time that Western experts were able to get a close look at the aircraft, and it revealed many secrets and surprises.

Belenko was granted asylum by then US President Gerald Ford, and a trust fund was set up for him, granting him a very comfortable living in later years. The US interrogated and debriefed him for 5 months after his defection, and employed him as a consultant for several years thereafter.


09-06-2007, 05:21 PM
Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. 269 passengers and crew, including US congressman Lawrence McDonald, were aboard KAL 007; there were no survivors.

The Soviet Union stated it did not know the aircraft was civilian and suggested it had entered Soviet airspace as a deliberate provocation by the United States, the purpose being to test its military response capabilities, repeating the provocation of Korean Air Flight 902, also shot down by Soviet aircraft over the Kola Peninsula in 1978. The incident attracted a storm of protest from across the world, particularly from the United States.


09-06-2007, 05:28 PM
On September 6, 1982 a frigate, the HDMS Peder Skram, accidentally fired a Harpoon missile during maneuvers in the Kattegat. The missile traveled 34 kilometers at low level, severing several power lines before striking some trees after which it exploded. The fireball and subsequent shock wave destroyed four unoccupied summer cottages, while damaging a further 130 buildings in the immediate vicinity. No human injury was reported. This incident was also called HOVSA, in english Oooops.

Because no one were hurt or killed it was a big laughter in Denmark. That's why :D


09-06-2007, 05:36 PM
Because of a computer error 41.000 people in Paris, France got a letter from the authorities accusing them for murder and/or prostitution insted of a message about a fine for traffic violation.

Captain Hornblower
09-06-2007, 05:50 PM
On September 6, 1982 a frigate, the HDMS Peder Skram, accidentally fired a Harpoon missile during maneuvers in the Kattegat.
It must be a popular "joke" in the Danish Navy, that accidentally Harpoon (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGM-84_Harpoon) firing. :D
I know about an incident, where a Danish Willemoes (http://www.navalhistory.dk/English/TheShips/VW/Willemoes(1977).htm) boat accidentally fired a Harpoon which landed smoothly on an unoccupied beach without detonating.

09-06-2007, 06:58 PM
I have never heard about this incident. I also didn't find anything on the Net.

The only thing I know about is an incident by a MTB that grounded during an naval exercise at the beach of Scroby Sands in England on dec. 2. 1952. It was the motor torpedo boat Havørnen.

Do you have more informations about it? :)

Captain Hornblower
09-06-2007, 07:38 PM
Yep ;)

Captain Hornblower
09-07-2007, 03:58 AM
On September 7, 1776, Turtle, the world's first submarine used in battle, under the guidance of Army volunteer Sergeant Ezra Lee, attacked HMS Eagle, which was moored off what is today called Liberty Island, but it could not manage to bore through the hull. When he attempted another spot in the hull, he lost the ship, and eventually abandoned the attempt.


Captain Hornblower
09-07-2007, 04:00 AM
Eugene Lefebvre (1878-1909), while test piloting a new French-built Wright biplane, crashes at Juvisy France when his controls jam. Lefebvre dies, becoming the first 'pilot' in the world to lose his life in a powered-heavier-than-air-craft.

Captain Hornblower
09-07-2007, 04:09 AM
Lusitania was owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company, built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland, and launched on Thursday, June 7, 1906. Lusitania sailed on her maiden voyage to New York City on September 7, 1907 arriving on September 13, 1907, taking back the Blue Riband in 1907 and she and the Mauretania were the fastest liners of their day.

On April 17, 1915, Lusitania left Liverpool on her 201st transatlantic voyage, arriving in New York on April 24. A group of German–Americans, hoping to avoid controversy if Lusitania were attacked by a U-boat, discussed their concerns with a representative of the German embassy. The embassy decided to warn passengers not to sail aboard Lusitania before her next crossing.

Lusitania was making for the port of Queenstown (now Cobh), Ireland, 70 kilometers from the Old Head of Kinsale when the liner crossed in front of U-20 at 2:10 p.m. Schwieger gave the order to fire, but his quartermaster, Charles Voegele, would not take part in an attack on women and children, and refused to pass on the order to the torpedo room — a decision for which he was court-martialed and served three years in prison at Kiel. Another crewman took over, and a single torpedo was launched. It hit under the bridge, and was followed by a much larger secondary explosion in the starboard bow. Schwieger's own log entries attest he only fired one torpedo. Some doubt the validity of this claim, contending the German government subsequently doctored Schwieger's log[citation needed], but accounts from other U-20 crew members confirm it. The torpedo struck just forward of the bridge, sending a plume of debris, steel plating and water upward and knocking Lifeboat #5 off its davits. Lusitania's wireless operator sent out an immediate SOS and Captain Turner gave the order to abandon ship.

Lusitania sank in 18 minutes, 8 miles (13 km) off of the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland. 1,198 people died with her, including almost a hundred children. The bodies of many of the victims were buried at either Lusitania's destination, Queenstown, or the Church of St. Multose in Kinsale. However, the bodies of many other victims were never recovered and remain entombed inside the wreck of the ship.

Of the 197 Americans on board, 128 lost their lives. There was massive outrage in Britain and America. The British felt the Americans had to declare war on Germany. US Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, fearing the US would declare war, resigned from the Cabinet in protest; however, President Woodrow Wilson still did not want the country to get involved in a European dispute because the American population (many of whom were German‐American) did not want to be involved in a war. Instead of declaring war, he sent a formal protest to Germany. Wilson was bitterly criticised in Britain as a coward.

Wilson's restraint now seems remarkable under the circumstances, since there was a wave of American anger over the sinking of Lusitania. Although unrestricted submarine warfare continued at a varying pace into the summer, on August 19 U-24 sank the White Star liner Arabic, with the loss of 44 passengers and crew. Three of the dead were Americans, and President Wilson angrily protested through German diplomatic channels.

On August 27, the Kaiser imposed severe restrictions on U‐boats attacks against large passenger vessels. On September 18, 1915, he called off unrestricted submarine warfare completely.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:41 PM
, sculpted from 1501 to 1504, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelo's two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. It is the David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable statue in the history of art. It has become regarded as a symbol both of strength and youthful human beauty. The 5.17 meter (17 ft) marble statue portrays the Biblical King David at the moment that he decides to do battle with Goliath. It came to symbolise the Florentine Republic, an independent city state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states. This interpretation was also encouraged by the original setting of the sculpture outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence. The completed sculpture was unveiled on 8 September 1504.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:43 PM
After four years of debate, The Football Association finally legalised professionalism on 20 July 1885. Before that date many clubs made illegal payments to "professional" players to boost the competitiveness of their teams, arousing the contempt of those clubs abiding by the laws of the amateur Football Association code. As more and more clubs became professional the ad-hoc fixture list of FA Cup, inter-county, and 'friendly' matches was seen by many as an unreliable stream of revenue, and ways were considered of ensuring a consistent income.

A Scottish draper and director of Aston Villa, William McGregor, was the first to set out to bring some order to a chaotic world where clubs arranged their own fixtures. On 2 March 1888, he wrote to the Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Preston North End, West Bromwich Albion and to the secretary of Aston Villa about the formation of a football league.

The first meeting was held at Anderson's Hotel in London on 23 March 1888 on the eve of the FA Cup Final with the name of the Football League being settled at a further meeting on 17 April at Manchester's Royal Hotel. The first season of the Football League began a few months later on 8 September with 12 member clubs.

Each club played the other twice, once at home and once away, and two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw. This points system was not agreed upon until after the season had started; the alternative proposal was one point for a win only. Preston won the first league title without losing a game, and completed the first league-cup double by also taking the FA Cup.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:45 PM
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 made landfall on the city of Galveston, Texas on September 8, 1900. It had estimated winds of 135 miles per hour (215 km/h) at landfall, making it a Category 4 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

The hurricane caused great loss of life. The death toll has been estimated to be between 6,000 and 12,000 individuals, depending on whether one counts casualties from the city of Galveston itself, the larger island, or the region as a whole. The number most cited in official reports is 8,000, giving the storm the third-highest number of casualties of any Atlantic hurricane, after the Great Hurricane of 1780 and 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 is to date the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States. By contrast, the second-deadliest storm to strike the United States, the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane, caused approximately 2,500 deaths, and the deadliest storm of recent times, Hurricane Katrina, has caused approximately 1,600 deaths.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:47 PM
Private Thomas James Highgate was an English soldier during the early days of the First World War, and the first British soldier to be convicted of desertion and executed during that war. Posthumous pardons for over 300 such soldiers were announced in August 2006, including Highgate.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:50 PM
The V-2 Rocket (German: Vergeltungswaffe 2) was the first ballistic missile and first man-made object launched into space, the progenitor of all modern rockets and a direct predecessor of the Saturn V moon rocket.

The first unit to reach operational status was Batterie 444. On September 2, 1944 they formed up to launch attacks on Paris, recently liberated, and eventually set up near Houffalize in Belgium. The next day the 485th moved to The Hague for operations against London. Several launch attempts over the next few days failed, but on 8 September both groups fired successfully.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:53 PM
The Treaty of San Francisco or San Francisco Peace Treaty between the Allied Powers and Japan, was officially signed by 49 nations on September 8, 1951 in San Francisco, California. It came into force on April 28, 1952.

This treaty served officially to end World War II, to end formally Japan's position as an imperial power and to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes. This treaty made extensive use of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals.


Captain Hornblower
09-08-2007, 04:55 PM
"The Man Trap" is a first season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series. It originally aired on Thursday, September 8, 1966, and was the first episode to be shown on NBC. It is episode #1, production #6, and was written by George Clayton Johnson, and directed by Marc Daniels.

Although it was first aired, it was not the first produced (the pilot "Where No Man Has Gone Before" and several regular episodes had been produced before it). The current official timeline considers "Where No Man Has Gone Before" to be set first.


Captain Hornblower
09-09-2007, 02:21 PM
Amalthea is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet. It was discovered on September 9, 1892, by Edward Emerson Barnard and named after Amalthea, a nymph in Greek mythology. It is also known as Jupiter V.


Captain Hornblower
09-09-2007, 02:25 PM
The first "documented" computer bug was a moth found trapped between points at Relay # 70, Panel F, of the Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator while it was being tested at Harvard University, 9 September 1947. Grace Hopper affixed the moth to the computer log, with the entry: "First actual case of bug being found". The operators put out the word that they had "debugged" the machine, thus introducing the term "debugging a computer."


Captain Hornblower
09-11-2007, 02:43 PM
I guess, there is no need to explain what happened on that day. :(

09-11-2007, 03:29 PM
1944 - World War II: the first allied troops of the U.S. Army cross the western border of Nazi Germany. U.S. 5th pantzer division is 1st to enter nazi-Germany

09-12-2007, 06:36 PM
Jacob Ellehammer flew on this day as the second european a plane on the island Lindholm. He flew 42 meters in an altitunde of 50 cm.


09-12-2007, 06:41 PM
Lascaux is the setting of a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its cave paintings. The original caves are located near the village of Montignac, in the Dordogne département. They contain some of the most well-known (Upper Paleolithic) art, dating back to somewhere between 15,000 and 13,000 BC. They consist mostly of realistic images of large animals, including aurochs, most of which are known from fossil evidence to have lived in the area at the time. They were added to UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 1979.


09-12-2007, 06:44 PM
Bonanza was an American western/cowboy television series which aired on the NBC television network from September 12, 1959 until January 16, 1973. The pilot episode was written by David Dortort, who also produced the series. Dortort's other creations include The Restless Gun, The High Chaparral, The Cowboys, and the Bonanza prequel, Ponderosa. Bonanza was the first hour-long network television series filmed in color. For most of its 430 episode run, the main sponsor of Bonanza was Chevrolet and the stars occasionally appeared in commercials endorsing Chevrolet automobiles. All of the regular cast members had appeared in numerous stage, television and film productions before Bonanza, but none was particularly well-known.

In 1959, the series was aired on Saturday evenings, most typically a social night. It was soon targeted for cancellation, but given one last chance. A move to Sunday nights at 9:00 PM, caused the series to soar, and it remained high on the Nielsen ratings until Autumn 1972. The Sunday time-slot was crucial to the success of the show: from 1964 through 1967, the show was #1 in the yearly Nielsen ratings. The series was moved to Tuesday nights during its 14th and final season. In terms of longevity, the show remains NBC's second longest-running series, after Law & Order.



09-12-2007, 07:16 PM
On September 12, 1962, Rice Stadium hosted the speech in which President John F. Kennedy challenged Americans to send a man to the moon by the end of the decade. In the speech, he used a reference to Rice University football to help frame his rhetoric:

But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.

And we all know it happened on July 20. 1969 when Neil Armstrong set his foot on the moon and said:

"That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."

The speach:

09-19-2007, 07:42 PM

09-19-2007, 07:46 PM
Ötzi the Iceman (also spelled Oetzi), Frozen Fritz, and Similaun Man are modern nicknames of a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC (53 centuries ago), found in 1991 in the Schnalstal glacier in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. The nickname comes from Ötztal, the region in which he was discovered. He is Europe's oldest natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic (Copper Age) Europeans.


Captain Hornblower
09-20-2007, 05:36 PM
Five ships under the command of Ferdinand Magellan departed the city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda to circumnavigate the globe. On 17.04.1521 Magellan was killed during the resulting Battle of Mactan against indigenous forces.

On September 6, 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Spain aboard the last ship in the fleet, Victoria, almost exactly three years after they departed. Magellan had not intended to circumnavigate the world, only to find a secure way through which the Spanish ships could navigate to the Spice Islands; it was Elcano who, after Magellan's death, decided to push westward, thereby completing the first voyage around the entire Earth.

Four crewmen of the original 55 on Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1525; 51 of them had died in war or from disease. In total, approximately 232 Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, English and German sailors died on the expedition around the world with Magellan.


Captain Hornblower
09-20-2007, 05:41 PM
On 20 September 1939, a German Messerschmitt Bf 109 was shot down by Battle gunner Sgt. F. Letchard during a patrol near Aachen, marking the RAF's first aerial victory of the war.


09-25-2007, 12:27 AM
Devil's Tower
The first United States National Monument, established on September 24, 1906 by President Theodore Roosevelt. 1347 acres (5.45 km²) are included within the Monument's boundaries.

09-28-2007, 12:17 AM
The Norman conquest of England initiated by the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) in 1066 and his success at the Battle of Hastings resulted in the Norman control of England. The Norman Conquest was a pivotal event in English history[1] for a number of reasons. This conquest linked England more closely with Continental Europe through the introduction of a Norman aristocracy, thereby lessening Scandinavian influence. It created one of the most powerful monarchies in Europe and engendered a sophisticated governmental system. The conquest changed the English language and culture, and set the stage for rivalry with France, which would continue intermittently until the 20th century. It has an iconic role in English national identity as the last successful military conquest of England.


09-28-2007, 12:20 AM
M/S Estonia was a cruiseferry built in 1980 at the German shipyard Meyer Werft in Papenburg. The ship's sinking in the Baltic Sea on September 28, 1994, claimed 852 lives and was one of the worst maritime disasters in modern history and one of the most controversial.


09-28-2007, 05:24 PM
"God Save the Queen", or "God Save the King", is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms; it currently serves as the national anthem of the United Kingdom, one of the two national anthems of New Zealand, and the royal anthem of Canada and of Australia. The title of the song varies with the gender of the reigning monarch, and so it now uses "Queen", though "King" has been historically more common. In countries not previously part of the British Empire the tune of "God Save the Queen" has also been used as the basis for different patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony.

The authorship of the song is unknown, and beyond its first verse, which is consistent, it has many historic and extant versions: Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and, even today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general only one, or sometimes two verses are sung, but on rare occasions three. One or two bars may also form a part of the Vice Regal Salute in Commonwealth realms outside the United Kingdom. The words of the song, like its title, are fitted to the gender of monarch, with "King" replacing "Queen", "he" replacing "she", and so forth, when a king reigns. In the United Kingdom, the last line of the third verse is also changed




Captain Hornblower
09-29-2007, 08:06 AM
The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle between the Greek city-states and Persia, fought in September, 480 BC in the straits between Piraeus and Salamis, a small island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, Greece.


Captain Hornblower
09-29-2007, 08:13 AM
Babi Yar is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.

In the course of two days, September 29—30, 1941, German Nazis aided by their collaborators murdered 33,771 Jewish civilians there. The Babi Yar massacre is considered to be "the largest single massacre in the history of the Holocaust."


10-03-2007, 04:55 PM
in 1957 : For the first time an object is sent in an orbit around earth.

USSR launched SPUTNIK 1 into the space and it became the first man-made object to be sent by man into an orbit.

Today is the 50th anniversary of that historic event.

There would not have been GEH if that event had not taken place.


10-13-2007, 07:33 AM
In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.

The White House 3D http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile20145/white-house-3d.htm


10-13-2007, 02:14 PM
On October 13, 1977, Lufthansa flight LH181, a Boeing 737 flying from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt with 91 passengers and crew, was hijacked by four militants belonging to "Commando Martyr Halime". Their leader was Zohair Youssif Akache, who went by the alias "Captain Martyr Mahmud."

The aircraft changed course and landed in Rome for refueling. Just like the kidnappers of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, Mahmud demanded the release of eleven RAF terrorists detained at the JVA Stuttgart-Stammheim prison, and 15 million US Dollars. The Landshut continued its journey, landing in Larnaca, Bahrain and Dubai, following a series of denied landing clearances in other airports across the Arabian Peninsula. On October 15, in Dubai, Captain Jürgen Schumann was able to radio the number of hijackers onboard, which resulted in Mahmud threatening to kill him.

Flight 181 then flew to Salalah, in Oman, where it was denied landing, and changed course to Aden. As the main runway was blocked by vehicles and the plane was running low on fuel, Captain Schumann had no choice but to land on a sand strip nearby. In order to verify the condition of the landing gear following the rough landing, he was allowed to temporarily leave the plane. However, Schumann did not immediately return to the plane after the inspection, even after numerous attempts to recall him, and a threat to blow up the plane on the ground. The reasons for this prolonged absence are unclear; however, some reports indicate that Schumann notified the Yemeni authorities of the location of the Semtex explosives, and was forced to remain in the control tower [1]. Upon his return to the aircraft and after take-off, Mahmud shot Schumann in the head, in the main passenger cabin, before he had a chance to explain himself.


10-21-2007, 04:00 PM
The Battle of Trafalgar saw the British decisively defeat a combined French and Spanish fleet on 21 October 1805 in the most significant naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars. A Royal Navy fleet of 27 ships of the line destroyed an allied French and Spanish fleet of 33 ships of the line west of Cape Trafalgar in south-west Spain. The French and Spanish lost 22 ships, while the British lost none. The British commander Admiral Lord Nelson died late in the battle, by which time he had ensured his place as Britain's greatest naval hero.

It was part of the War of the Third Coalition, and a pivotal naval battle of the 19th century. The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the 18th century. However, by the time it was fought, Napoleon had abandoned his plans to invade southern England and instead was defeating Britain's allies in Germany.


10-24-2007, 04:15 PM
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Crash of ’29, was one of the most devastating stock market crashes in American history. It consists of Black Thursday (October 24, 1929), the initial crash and Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929), the crash that caused general panic five days later. The crash marked the beginning of widespread and long-lasting consequences for the United States. Though economists and historians disagree on exactly what role the crash had in the subsequent economic fallout, some regard it as the start of the Great Depression. Most historians, however, agree that it was actually a symptom of the Great Depression, rather than a cause. The crash was also the starting point of important financial reforms and trading regulations

10-26-2007, 02:22 PM
The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral was a gunfight that has been portrayed in numerous Western films. It has come to symbolize the struggle between law-and-order and open-banditry and rustling in frontier towns of the Old West where law enforcement was often thin, and where some of the urban-vs.-rural and North-vs.-South tensions of the American Civil War were still very much active.

The gunfight happened on Wednesday afternoon at about 3:00PM on October 26, 1881, in a vacant lot, known as lot 2, in block 17, behind the corral in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, United States. Some of the fighting was in Fremont Street in front of the vacant lot. About 30 shots were fired in 30 seconds.

10-28-2007, 11:22 PM
October 28th, 1886 - In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.

10-30-2007, 03:23 PM
1938 - Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds, causing a nationwide panic

10-30-2007, 04:45 PM
The Rumble in The Jungle was a historic boxing event that took place on October 30, 1974, in the May 20 Stadium in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo). It pitted then world Heavyweight champion George Foreman against former world champion and challenger Muhammad Ali, who became the second fighter ever, after Floyd Patterson, to recover the world's Heavyweight crown.

The event was Don King's first venture as a professional boxing promoter. He managed to get both Ali and Foreman to sign separate contracts saying they would fight for him if he could get 5 million dollars to be their prize. However, King did not have the money. So he began looking for an outside country to sponsor the event. Zaire's flamboyant president Mobutu Sésé Seko asked for the fight to be held in his country, eager for the publicity such a high-profile event would bring.


10-30-2007, 04:49 PM
Tsar Bomba (Царь-бомба, literally "Emperor Bomb") is the Western name for the RDS-220, which was the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. Developed by the Soviet Union, the bomb had a yield of about 50 megatons of TNT and it was codenamed Ivan by its developers.

The bomb was tested on October 30, 1961, in Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago in the Arctic Sea. The device was scaled down from its original design of 100 megatons to reduce the resulting nuclear fallout.[1]

The Tsar bomba never entered service. It was just a demonstration of Soviet scientific, technical and military power of that time. One real Tsar bomba and one mockup were constructed. The real bomb was tested, the mockup was stored in the Russian Nuclear Weapons Museum in the Russian town of Sarov.


10-30-2007, 04:54 PM
The Second Schleswig War (Danish: 2. Slesvigske Krig; German: Zweiter Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) was the second military conflict due to the Schleswig-Holstein Question. The war began on February 1, 1864 when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig. The war ended on October 30, 1864 with the Treaty of Vienna (1864) causing Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussian and Austrian administration, respectively.

Other names by which the war is known include the Danish-Prussian War, the German-Danish War (German: Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg), the Prusso-Danish War, the War of 1864, and the Schleswig-Holstein War of Succession.

The war took place in 1864 between Denmark on the one side and Prussia and Austria on the other side. Like the First Schleswig War (1848–51), it was fought for control of the duchies because of succession disputes concerning the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg when the Danish king died without an heir acceptable to the German Confederation. Decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol.

Reasons for the war were the ethnic controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state.


10-30-2007, 05:02 PM
George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος A', Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων, Georgios A' Vasileus ton Ellinon; December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 to 1913. Originally a Danish prince, when only 17 years old he was elected King by the Greek National Assembly, which had deposed the former King Otto. His nomination was both suggested and supported by the Great Powers (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire and Russian Empire).

As the first monarch of the new Greek dynasty, his 50-year reign (the longest in modern Greek history) was characterized by territorial gains as Greece established its place in pre-World War I Europe. Two weeks short of the fiftieth anniversary of his accession, and during the First Balkan War, he was assassinated. In sharp contrast to his reign, the reigns of his successors would prove short and insecure.


11-01-2007, 07:04 PM
The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. Its fame rests on its architecture, which evokes Solomon's Temple of the Old Testament, its decoration, frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists, including Michelangelo whose ceiling is legendary, and its purpose, as a site of papal religious and functionary activity, notably the conclave, at which a new Pope is selected.

The Sistine Chapel is most famously known for being the location of Papal conclaves, for the election of a new Pope. More commonly, it is the physical chapel of the Papal Chapel. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, this corporate body comprised about 200 persons, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity.

There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet. Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, generally St. Peters, and were attended by large congregations. These included the Christmas Day and Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Sistine Chapel was purpose built on the site of its predecessor, the Cappella Maggiore, which had served the same purpose.

The Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel also in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, which had been decorated by Fra Angelico. The Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning.

The present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore, was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV, for whom it is named, and built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1484. The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original closely. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the late 15th century, including Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Perugino.

The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, and continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Allegri's Miserere, a setting of the psalm for Maundy Thursday.


11-01-2007, 07:07 PM
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on November 1, 1755, at 9:40 in the morning. It was one of the most destructive and deadly earthquakes in history, killing between 60,000 and 100,000 people . The earthquake was followed by a tsunami and fire, resulting in the near-total destruction of Lisbon. The earthquake accentuated political tensions in Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's eighteenth-century colonial ambitions.

The event was widely discussed by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy and in the philosophy of the sublime. As the first earthquake studied scientifically for its effects over a large area, it signaled the birth of modern seismology. Geologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake approached magnitude 9 on the Richter scale, with an epicenter in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent.



11-01-2007, 07:14 PM
US President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).



11-01-2007, 07:34 PM
Atomic bomb experiment DOG, a nuclear weapon dropped from an aircraft, was exploded at 7:30 AM, on November 1, 1951. The nuclear bomb detonated 1,417 feet above the terrain of Area 7, Yucca Flat, at the National Test Site in Nevada. As part of Exercise Desert Rock I, the armed services fielded a troop observer program with approximately 2,800 participants, a tactical troop maneuver with approximately 880 participants, and damage effects tests with approximately 60 participants. All troops observed the shot from a location 11 kilometers south of ground zero.

The following United States Army units conducted the tactical maneuver at atomic bomb experiment DOG:

1st Battalion, 188th Airborne Infantry Regiment, 11th Airborne Division
3rd Medical Platoon, 188th Airborne Medical Company
Platoon, Company A, 127th Engineer Battalion
(all from Camp Campbell, KY)

and Battery C, 546th Field Artillery Battalion from Fort Lewis, WA.

The Army units formed a Battalion Combat Team (BCT) for the maneuver. During the weeks preceding the shot, BCT personnel dug foxholes and built gun emplacements and bunkers in a tactical defensive position southwest of ground zero. Several hours before the shot, the BCT and observers went by truck and bus convoy into the forward area. They proceeded to the observation point about 11 kilometers from ground zero, where they were intentionally exposed to radiation when DOG exploded. After the detonation, the troops moved by convoy to their tactical defensive position, where they viewed the effects of the nuclear detonation on the fortifications. The BCT then proceeded in an attack formation to its objective. The objective was southwest of ground zero; at its closest point, it was 460 meters from ground zero. The BCT was accompanied by radiological safety monitors and was preceded by radiation survey teams who determined the limits of safe advance. After reaching the objective, the troops toured two equipment displays 900 and 1,350 meters south of ground zero. The troops were then trucked to a display position over 6 kilometers south of ground zero. During these activities, Human Resources Research Office personnel tested the troops to determine their psychological reactions to the detonation [Editor�s Note: In other words, the troops were used as human guinea pigs in an atomic experiment—not quite Josef Mengele's modus operandi, but about as close to it as the United States Army has ever come].

Atomic bomb blast SUGAR, the first surface detonation at the National Test Site (formerly known as the National Proving Grounds) was fired at 9 AM, on November 19, 1951. The SUGAR device was detonated 3.5 feet above the ground in Area 9, Yucca Flat. The initial survey detected onsite fallout to the north of ground zero.

About 550 Department of Defense personnel participated in scientific projects conducted by the two test units at Shot SUGAR. Approximately 450 SWC participants performed support missions. Perhaps an additional 100 Department of Defense personnel worked for various units coordinated by the test organization.

Atomic bomb blast UNCLE, the first underground nuclear detonation at the National Test Site in Nevada, was fired at noon on November 29, 1951. The nuclear device was detonated 17 feet beneath the ground in Area 10 of Yucca Flat. The initial survey showed onsite fallout north of ground zero. As with SUGAR, the troops observed the detonation at a distance of 5 miles. Near ground zero the radiation level was 5000 roentgens/hour at one hour after the test, with levels of 1000 R/hr extending up to 1200 yards from the burst point. Hazardous levels of 100 R/hr extended past 5000 yards in some areas.

Exposure from Dominic I (excerpt from DTRA fact sheet)

In general, Dominic I doses were as follows: Approximately 5 percent (some 1,200 military personnel) of Dominic I personnel had doses greater than 0.5 rem. Approximately 230 personnel had doses greater than 2.0 rem, with approximately 40 people receiving doses over 5.0 rem. Included in this group are 20 individuals with doses greater than 10.0 rem; the highest total dose for the entire operation was 17.68 rem.

The government claims that many of the badges worn by personnel during Dominic I were defectively sealed, which purportedly resulted in damage to the films from moisture, light and heat. Film damage typically caused optical density (darkening) in addition to that from nuclear radiation, which was, nonetheless, historically attributed to radiation. A 1979–1980 reevaluation of 1,349 Dominic I film badges showed that 45 percent exhibited some damage related to light, heat, and age, due to defective wax seals. Of the badges that had apparent readings over 0.4 rem, 98 percent were observed to have had suffered environmental damage. Subsequent research [Editor's Note: "subsequent research" is government doublespeak for statistics that have been altered ex post facto] of radiological data from Dominic I indicates that only the following categories of participants had the potential for radiation exposure:

♦ Crewmembers of SIOUX.
♦ Nuclear cloud sampler aircrews or associated ground crewmembers.
♦ Personnel involved in the recovery and handling of radioactive instrumented pods, rocket noses cones, or any other contaminated material.
♦ Radiation Safety monitors.


Text from http://www.fdungan.com/duke.htm

11-02-2007, 11:02 AM
For the amount of 2 Pounds car owners could sign a car insurance at the Londoner "General Accident Corporation" for all accidents exept one.

The insurance had an exception. The insurance didn't assure accidents with scared horses. And that happened a lot after the first cars came on the street.

Text from DW-Welt.de: http://www.kalenderblatt.de/index.php?what=thmanu&manu_id=696&tag=2&monat=11&year=2004&dayisset=1&lang=de

11-02-2007, 11:13 AM
The Morris worm or Internet worm was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet; it is considered the first worm and was certainly the first to gain significant mainstream media attention. It was written by a student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988 from MIT. The worm was released from MIT to disguise the fact that the worm originally came from Cornell. (Incidentally, Robert Tappan Morris is now an associate professor at MIT.)

Architecture of the worm
According to its creator, the Morris worm was not written to cause damage, but to gauge the size of the Internet. An unintended consequence of the code, however, caused it to be more damaging: a computer could be infected multiple times and each additional process would slow the machine down to the point of being unusable. The Morris worm worked by exploiting known vulnerabilities in Unix sendmail, Finger, rsh/rexec and weak passwords. The main body of the worm could only infect DEC VAX machines running BSD 4, and Sun 3 systems. A portable C "grappling hook" component of the worm was used to pull over the main body, and the grappling hook could run on other systems, loading them down and making them peripheral victims.

The mistake
The critical error that transformed the worm from a potentially harmless intellectual exercise into a virulent denial of service attack was in the spreading mechanism. The worm could have determined whether or not to invade a new computer by asking if there was already a copy running. But just doing this would have made it trivially easy to kill; everyone could just run a process that would answer "yes" when asked if there was already a copy, and the worm would stay away. The defense against this was inspired by Michael Rabin's mantra, "Randomization." To compensate for this possibility, Morris directed the worm to copy itself if the response is "yes", consecutively 7 times. This level of replication proved excessive and the worm spread rapidly, infecting some computers multiple times. Rabin remarked when he heard of the mistake, that he "should have tried it on a simulator first."

Effects of the worm
It is usually reported that around 6,000 major Unix machines were infected by the Morris worm. Paul Graham has claimed that

"I was there when this statistic was cooked up, and this was the recipe: someone guessed that there were about 60,000 computers attached to the Internet, and that the worm might have infected ten percent of them."

The U.S. GAO put the cost of the damage at $10M–100M.

Gene Spafford created the Phage mailing list to coordinate a response to the emergency.

Robert Morris was tried and convicted of violating the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. After appeals he was sentenced to three years probation, 400 hours of community service, and a fine of $10,050.

The Morris worm has sometimes been referred to as the "Great Worm", because of the devastating effect it had upon the Internet at that time, both in overall system downtime and in psychological impact on the perception of security and reliability of the Internet. The name derives from the "Great Worms" of Tolkien: Scatha and Glaurung.


(Text from Wikipedia)

11-05-2007, 05:02 PM
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, or the Powder Treason, as it was known at the time, was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening on 15 November 1605 (5 November 1605 in the Julian Calendar). The conspirators had also planned to abduct the royal children, not present in Parliament, and incite a revolt in the Midlands.

The Gunpowder Plot was one of many unsuccessful assassination attempts against James I, and followed the Main Plot and Bye Plot of 1603. Some popular historians have put forward a debate about government involvement in the plot.

On 5 November each year, people in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries and regions celebrate the failure of the plot on what is known as Guy Fawkes Night, Bonfire Night, Fireworks Night, Cracker Night or Plot Night; although the political meaning of the festival has grown to be very much secondary today.


11-05-2007, 05:06 PM
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. A central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war, he has consistently been ranked as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents in scholarly surveys.

Roosevelt won four presidential elections in a row, causing a realignment that political scientists call the Fifth Party System. His aggressive use of an active federal government re-energized the Democratic Party, creating a New Deal Coalition which dominated American politics until the late 1960s. He and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, remain touchstones for modern American liberalism. Conservatives vehemently fought back, but Roosevelt usually prevailed until he tried to pack the Supreme Court in 1937. Thereafter, the new Conservative coalition successfully ended New Deal expansion; during the war it closed most relief programs like the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps, arguing that unemployment had disappeared.


11-05-2007, 05:25 PM
On this day the annual Christmas Seal came on sale i Denmark. It was designed by Princess Margrethe, today Queen Margrethe II of Denmark. It was called Himmelborgen, Heavens Fort, with 50 differnt angels in white with golden wings.


In 1904, Einar Holbøll, a Danish postal clerk developed the idea of a seal on envelopes during Christmas to raise money for tuberculosis. The plan was approved by the Postmaster and the King of Denmark, and the first seal bore the likeness of the Queen and the word Julen (Christmas). Over 4 million were sold in the first year.


The Christmas Seals were introduced to the United States by Emily Bissell in 1907, after she had read about the program in an article by Danish-born Jacob Riis, a muckraking journalist and photographer. Bissell hoped to raise money for a sanitarium on the Brandywine River in Delaware.

It grew to a national program in 1908 by the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (NASPT) and the American National Red Cross. The seals were sold at post offices, initially in Delaware at 1 cent each. Net proceeds from the sales would be divided equally between the two organizations. By 1920, the Red Cross withdrew from the arrangement and sales were conducted exclusively by the NASPT, then known as the National Tuberculosis Association (NTA). To reflect the expanding scope of the organization's goals, the name was changed to the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association in the late 1960's. The NTRDA became the American Lung Association in 1973, though the 1974 seals continue to show the NTRDA inscription on the sheet margin.

Today the Christmas Seals benefit the American Lung Association and other lung related issues. Tuberculosis was declining, but recently has been on the rise. TB is still the most common major infectious disease in the world.

11-07-2007, 06:23 PM
On November 7, 1963, 11 German miners were rescued from a collapsed mine after surviving for 14 days, an event that became subsequently known as the Wunder von Lengede ("miracle of Lengede") and attracted worldwide media attention.

The miners were initially trapped in the Alte Mann, an abandoned tunnel in the ore mine Lengede-Broistedt, near Salzgitter, on October 24, 1963, after half a million m³ of mud water from Klärteich 12 had flooded the mine and the tunnels between the 60 and 100 m levels; out of 129 workers, 79 managed to rescue themselves during the first few hours, and although it first seemed as if there was no hope left for the other 50, one of the biggest and most dramatic rescue missions in the history of mining began after 7 more miners were found 23 hours after the catastrophe.

The efforts paid off; three more workers were found alive on November 1, and two days later, contact could be established with another group of 11. After a few more days of drilling, this group was also brought to safety again on November 7, after being trapped for two weeks; the remaining 29 workers died.

The disaster attracted considerable media attention; Chancellor Ludwig Erhard personally visited the mining site, and almost 460 journalists were present when the last miners were rescued. In 2003, a television film titled "Das Wunder von Lengede" in two parts was produced by German TV station Sat.1, written by Benedikt Röskau based on the memories of one of the rescued miners.

11-07-2007, 06:25 PM
The 1983 U.S. Senate bombing was a bomb explosion at the United States Senate on November 7, 1983.

On the Monday of November 7, the Senate adjourned at 7:02 p.m. A crowded reception, held near the Senate Chamber, broke up two hours later. At 10:58 p.m. an explosion tore through the second floor of the Capitol’s north wing, the adjacent halls were virtually deserted.

Minutes before the blast, a caller claiming to represent the "Armed Resistance Unit" had warned the Capitol switchboard that a bomb had been placed near the Chamber in retaliation for recent U.S. military involvement in Grenada and Lebanon.

The force of the device, hidden under a bench at the eastern end of the corridor outside the Chamber, blew off the door to the office of Democratic Leader Robert C. Byrd. The blast also punched a hole in a wall partition sending a shower of pulverized brick, plaster, and glass into the Republican cloakroom. Although the explosion caused no structural damage to the Capitol, it shattered mirrors, chandeliers, and furniture. Officials calculated damages of $250,000.

A portrait of Daniel Webster, located across from the concealed bomb, received the explosion’s full force. The blast tore away Webster’s face and left it scattered across the Minton tiles in one-inch canvas shards. Senate curator James Ketchum rescued the fragments from debris-filled trash bins. Over the coming months, a conservator painstakingly restored the painting to a credible, if somewhat diminished, version of the original.

Following a five-year investigation, federal agents arrested six members of the Resistance Conspiracy in May 1988 and charged them with bombings of the Capitol, Ft. McNair, and the Washington Navy Yard. In 1990, a federal judge sentenced Marilyn Buck, Laura Whitehorn, and Linda Evans to lengthy prison terms for conspiracy and malicious destruction of government property. The court dropped charges against three co-defendants, already serving extended prison sentences for related crimes. (Whitehorn and Evans have since been released.)

The 1983 bombing marked the beginning of tightened security measures throughout the Capitol. The area outside the Senate Chamber, previously open to the public, was permanently closed. Congressional officials instituted a system of staff identification cards and added metal detectors to building entrances to supplement those placed at Chamber gallery.

11-07-2007, 06:28 PM
Mary Robinson, (born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. She first rose to prominence as an academic, barrister, campaigner and member of the Irish senate (1969–1989). She defeated Fianna Fáil's Brian Lenihan and Fine Gael's Austin Currie in the 1990 presidential election becoming, as an Independent candidate nominated by the Labour Party, the Workers' Party of Ireland and independent senators, the first elected president in the office's history not to have the support of Fianna Fáil.

She is credited by many as having revitalised and liberalised a previously conservative political office. She resigned the presidency four months ahead of the end of her term of office to take up her post in the United Nations. Robinson has been Honorary President of Oxfam International since 2002, she is Chair of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and is also a founding member and Chair of the Council of Women World Leaders. Robinson is also one of the European members of the controversial Trilateral Commission.

She serves on many boards including the GAVI Fund. Robinson’s newest project is Realizing Rights: the Ethical Globalization Initiative, which promotes equitable trade and development, more humane migration policies and better responses to HIV/AIDS in Africa. The organization also promotes women's leadership and supports capacity building and good governance in developing countries. Since 2004, she has also been Professor of Practice in International Affairs at Columbia University, where she teaches international human rights. Robinson also visits other colleges and universities where she lectures on human rights.

In 2004, she received Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for her work in promoting human rights.


11-07-2007, 06:41 PM
The danish colonies of Tranquebar and the villages Serampore, Achne og Pirapur were sold to the British East-India Company for the amount of 1.125.000 Rigsdaler (danish currency at that time).


11-07-2007, 10:42 PM
On November 7, 1940, at approximately 11:00 AM, the first Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge collapsed due to wind-induced vibrations. Situated on the Tacoma Narrows in Puget Sound, near the city of Tacoma, Washington, the bridge had only been open for traffic since july 1st. 1940.

The new bridg was build in two steps. First bridge was opened in 1950, and a parallel bridge opened in 2007.


Video of the collapse:


11-07-2007, 11:05 PM
A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party.

Thomas Nasts Republican elephant

United States Republican Party logo.

11-08-2007, 01:30 PM
The Stockholm Bloodbath, or the Stockholm Massacre, took place as the result of a successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces under the command of Christian II of Denmark (in Swedish history known as "Christian the Tyrant"). The bloodbath itself is a series of events taking place between November 7 and November 10 in 1520, culminating on the 8th, when around 100 people (mostly nobility and clergy supporting the Sture party) were executed, despite a promise by Christian for general amnesty.

The 'Stockholm Bloodbath' precipitated a lengthy hostility towards Danes in Sweden, and thenceforth the two nations were at almost continuous hostility with each other (each with the objective of conquest or revenge upon the other). These hostilities lasted for nearly three hundred years. Memory of the Bloodbath served to let Swedes depict themselves (and often, actually regard themseves) as the wronged and aggrieved party, even when they were eventually the ones who had political and military victories such as the conquest and annexation of Scania.


11-09-2007, 03:28 PM
Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938.

Jewish homes were ransacked in numerous German cities along with 8,000 Jewish shops, towns and villages, as civilians and both the SA (Sturmabteilung) and the SS (Schutzstaffel) destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets covered in smashed windows — the origin of the name "Night of Broken Glass." Jews were beaten to death; 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps; and 1,668 synagogues ransacked with 267 set on fire.

The Times of London wrote of the violence: "no foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."


11-09-2007, 03:36 PM
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic.


11-09-2007, 03:38 PM
The Great Boston Fire of 1872 was Boston's largest urban fire and still one of the most costly fire-related property losses in American history. The conflagration began at 7:20 p.m. on November 9, 1872, in the basement of a commercial warehouse at 83—87 Summer Street in Boston, Massachusetts. The fire was finally contained twelve hours later, after it had consumed about 65 acres (263,000 m²) of Boston's downtown, 776 buildings, and much of the financial district and caused $73.5 million in damage. At least twenty people are known to have died in the fire.


11-09-2007, 03:51 PM
On November 9th 1641 Maren Splids was burned at a fire at the Gallows Hill near Ribe. Maren was one of the last and probably the most wellknown Danish victims for persecutions of witches.

In Denmark the witch hunts began after the Reformation in 1536 and continued into the 17th century, where the plague and innumerable wars destroyed large parts of the country and left a great part of the population poor. The hard pressed people needed scapegoats.

After the Reformation you could no longer buy yourself absolution from the Catholic Church. Instead you could argue you were bewitched to sin. In this way you could still be saved.

Especially women – and especially the poor and elderly - were accused and convicted as witches. They had a hard time just to survive and often they had conflicts with their neighbours and fellow citizens. In such conflicts men would resort to physical violence, but women more often used verbal abuses against each other. They might threaten their opponents with all kinds of misfortunes, and if some of them came through – well then women were obvious targets for persecution as witches.

Maren Splids was not a typical witch, because she was a wealthy and respected citizen in Ribe. She was married to the tailor Lauritz Spliid and was a successful landlady of the inn in Lauritz’ house in Sønderportsgade.

Sign on hous the Splids lived. The sign says: Here lived tailor Laurids Splid whos poor wife Maren on november 9th 1641 was burned for witchcraft at the Gallowhills at Ribe.

Maren was a selfassured lady and probably many thought she ought to be a little more modest and accommodating.

In 1637 she was accused of being a witch by the tailor Didrik Skrædder. He might have been jealous of Lauritz Splids’ success in business and angry with his own incompetence. He claimed that three women had entered his house at night. Two of them he didn’t know, but the third was Maren. They had held him, and Maren had forced his mouth open and breathed into his throat. After that he had become ill and vomited. In the vomit was a strange lump of living matter. This lump of vomit became the most important proof against Maren. The lump of vomit was shown to all – also the supreme authority in Ribe – the feudal overlord Gregers Krabbe at Riberhus. The priests and bishop in Ribe were assembled and everyone believed that the lump could not be a natural phenomenon. A witch had to have had a hand in it.

Maren was put on trial. At first Lauritz Splid succeeded in having the trial dismissed against his wife. But in 1639 Didrik had found some more witnesses and had approached King Christian the 4th himself. It so happened that the king himself was quite obsessed by witches, thinking they harmed him in both wars and as well as home. So Christian the 4th was directly responsible for having Maren put on trial again in Ribe.

Maren Splids was found guilty. However shortly thereafter she was once more acquitted by another court in Ribe. Then the case was submitted to the Supreme Court of Denmark, where the King himself was judge. Christian the 4th imprisoned Maren in a tower in Copenhagen. Maren was then tortured until she confessed being a witch, although it is was prohibited to torture a prisoner before her being found guilty.

Maren reported a number of other witches in her confessions, among them a cripple named Anne. The day after the sentence Maren Splids was burned as a witch at Galgebakken in Ribe. So many people watched her execution that the priest hardly could get through to her. She had had half a pint of beer and a load of gunpowder was tied to her back, so that her death would be hastened. After that she was tied to a ladder and thrown into the high flames.

In the periode between 1572 and 1652 12 witch trials were conducted in Ribe. The last one was concerned Anna Bruds who was burned April 7th 1652.

(From Ribe Tourist Service)

11-09-2007, 04:21 PM
The two hunters from Greenland, Poq and Quiperoq, arrived on this day in Copenhagen on the danish vessel Kronprins Christian. They were promised to be back within a year.
In Copenhagen they were presented to King Frederik IV, they demonstrated how they use kayaks on a lake hunting ducks with their spear.

The reason why they came to Denmark was because the trade did go bad since the begin in 1721 so the State wanted to improve the trade this way. Another reason was to attract danes to go to Greenland.

Unfortunately Quiperoq died on the way back to Greenland, maybe beacause of a disease caught in Denmark.

Poq and Quiperoq, painted 1724.

11-09-2007, 11:52 PM
Henry Morton Stanley locates missing explorer and missionary, Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika.



11-09-2007, 11:58 PM
The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War, formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded, and although individual Marines were enlisted for the few American naval vessels left, the institution itself would not be resurrected until 1798. In preparation for the Naval War with France, Congress created the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The U.S. Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805), when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led seven Marines and 300 Arab and European mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke Sword carried by Marine officers.


11-10-2007, 12:29 AM
A test drive by the first motorcycle took place in Germany between the cities of Cannstadt and Untertürkheim. A ride of 3 km. (1.86 miles).
It was invented by Wilhelm Maybach Gottlieb Daimler and they called it Reitwagen, Riding waggon. It was the first prototype of a motorcycle.

On april 3rd. 1885 they got a patent on the engine, a 0.5 HP engine.

It was made of wood because they thaught it was too expensive to make it out of steel and that got a patent on august 29th.

The Reitwagen had a steel band on the wheels and gange wheels. The exhaust under the saddle.

1904 it was destroyed by fire. A copy is showed at the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart and in Deutsches Museum in Munich.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/de/2/2d/Daimler_Reitwagen%2C_Nachbau_von_1885.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/de/c/c3/Daimler-Reitwagen_Nachbau_451_338px.jpg

A drawing of it:


11-10-2007, 04:54 PM
1871 - Henry Morton Stanley locates missing explorer and missionary, Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika saying "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"

I am late as usual. Posting at same time as Slayds.

11-11-2007, 09:34 AM
On this day Hans Christian Andersens most famous fairytale was published after he finished it on october 7th. 1843. First he called it "Svaneungen" (The Cygnet) but he changed it just before publication.

It was published in a fairytale booklet with other fairytales, among them "The Nightingale" and it was this fairytale that made him so loved all over the World.

1952 the actor Danny Kaye sang "The Ugly Duckling" the the musical movie Hans Christian Andersen about the life of Andersen. Another song in this movie he sang was "Wonderful Copenhagen"

1952 Danny Kaye visited Denmark and of cause he visited Hans Christian Andersens House in Odense. There he made a huge scandal at that time. He layed in Andersens bed with his umbrella opened.


Since then this fairytale has been made into film. The latest was "The Ugly Duckling And Me"

Link about Andersen from Odense City Museum:

11-11-2007, 09:44 AM
Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside of Compiègne in France. The war officially stops at 11:00 (The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month).

This photograph was taken after reaching an agreement for the armistice that ended World War I. The location is in the forest of Compiègne. Foch is second from the right. The train carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, would prove to be the setting of France's own armistice in June 1940. When the WWII armistice was signed, Hitler had the rail car taken back to Berlin where it was destroyed when allied aircraft bombed the city.


11-11-2007, 10:11 AM
Peter Hiort Lorenzen, a danish politician in Duchy Schleswig. On this day in 1842 he held a speach in danish even though the language used was german. He said also the famous words in Denmark: "I talk danish - And I continue talking danish (Jeg taler dansk - Og forbliver tale dansk)

He did so because a lawyer from Aabenraa, J. Th. Gülich, demanded the brand Danish Property should be removed from douchy ships.

Lorenzen died 1845.

Today the danish community in Schleswig can talk danish without problems, they have their own schools, annual meetings.
They even have members in the Parliament in Schleswig-Holstein (Landtag-Kiel) with their own party SSV (SSW).


11-19-2007, 08:09 PM
The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.[1] It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated the Confederates at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.


11-23-2007, 09:40 PM
The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p.m. CST (18:30 UTC), 6 days before Thanksgiving. John F. Kennedy was fatally wounded by gunshots while riding with his wife Jacqueline in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository in Dealey Plaza, according to the conclusions of multiple government investigations, including the ten-month investigation of the Warren Commission of 1963-4 and the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) of 1976-9. This conclusion initially met with widespread support among the American public, but polls, since the original 1966 Gallup poll, show a majority of the public hold beliefs contrary to these findings. The assassination is still the subject of widespread speculation and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories (even the HSCA, based on disputed acoustical evidence, concluded that Oswald may have had unspecified co-conspirators), though these theories have not generally been accepted by mainstream historians and no single compelling alternative theory has emerged.



11-23-2007, 09:45 PM
Edward Teach (c. 1680 – November 22, 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English pirate in the Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic during the early 18th century, a period referred to as the Golden Age of Piracy. His best known vessel was the Queen Anne's Revenge, which is believed to have run aground near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina in 1718.

Blackbeard often fought, or simply showed himself, wearing a big feathered tricorn, and having multiple swords, knives, and pistols at his disposal. It was reported in the General History of the Pirates that he had hemp and lighted matches woven into his enormous black beard during battle. Accounts of people who saw him fighting say that they thought he "looked like the devil" with his fearsome face and the smoke cloud around his head. This image, which he cultivated, has made him the premier image of the seafaring pirate.


11-29-2007, 04:56 PM
A Korean Air jetliner, Flight 858, disappeared off Burma over the Indian Ocean, with the loss of all 115 people aboard; South Korean authorities charged that North Korean agents had planted a bomb on the aircraft.


Korean Air Flight 858 was en route from Abu Dhabi to Bangkok on 29 November 1987 when it exploded over the Andaman Sea killing all 115 on board. Two North Korean agents had boarded the plane in Baghdad and departed during its stopover in Abu Dhabi having left a time bomb in an overhead compartment and were arrested when they attempted to leave Bahrain using fake Japanese passports. Both immediately swallowed cyanide capsules. The male, later identified as 70-year-old Kim Sung Il, died almost instantly, but the female suspect, 26-year-old Kim Hyon Hui, survived.

In January of 1988, Ms. Kim announced at a press conference held by the Agency for National Security Planning, the South Korean secret services agency, that both she and her partner were North Korean operatives. She said that they had left a radio containing 350 grams of C-4 explosive and a liquor bottle containing approximately 700 ml of PLX explosive in an overhead rack in the passenger cabin of the aircraft. Kim expressed remorse at her actions and asked for the forgiveness of the families of those who had died. She also said that the order for the bombing had been "personally penned" by Kim Jong Il, then the son of North Korean President Kim Il Sung, who had wanted to destabilize the South Korean government.


11-29-2007, 05:05 PM
The Zong Massacre was the name given to the mass-killing of African slaves that took place in 1781 on the Zong, a British slave ship owned by James Gregson and colleagues in a Liverpool slave-trading firm.

The ship had taken on more slaves than it could safely transport. By November 29, 1781, this overcrowding, together with malnutrition and disease, had killed seven of the crew and approximately sixty African slaves. Captain Collingwood decided to throw the remaining sick slaves overboard. He assumed that the slaves would be considered in law to be cargo, so he could claim the loss against an insurance policy. The insurance policy would allow the Liverpool ship-owners to bring a claim if a slave went over the side alive, but not if a slave died on board, as that would be deemed to be bad cargo management and therefore not covered by the policy. Collingwood therefore gave orders for 133 slaves to be drowned.

Later, it was claimed that the slaves had been jettisoned because it was required "for the safety of the ship" as the ship did not have enough water to keep them alive for the rest of the voyage. This claim was later disproved as the ship had 420 gallons of water left when it arrived in Jamaica on December 22.


12-03-2007, 01:38 AM
The Rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two Emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the Rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them to join. It was also agreed between both of them that Adi Bitar write the constitution and have it ready by 2 December 1971.

On December 2, 1971, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace four other Emirates agreed to join and enter into a union of six Emirates called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972.

12-03-2007, 01:41 AM
The Enron scandal was a financial scandal that was revealed in late 2001. After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures bordering on fraud, perpetrated throughout the 1990s, involving Enron and its accounting firm Arthur Andersen, it stood at the verge of undergoing the largest bankruptcy in history by mid-November 2001. A white knight rescue attempt by a similar, smaller energy company, Dynegy, was not viable. Enron filed for bankruptcy on December 2, 2001.

As the scandal was revealed, Enron shares dropped from over US$90.00 to just pennies. As Enron had been considered a blue chip stock, this was an unprecedented and disastrous event in the financial world. Enron's plunge occurred after it was revealed that much of its profits and revenue were the result of deals with special purpose entities (limited partnerships which it controlled). The result was that many of Enron's debts and the losses that it suffered were not reported in its financial statements.

In addition, the scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the world's top five accounting firms.


12-03-2007, 06:16 AM
At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).

Washkansky was a Lithuanian Jew, who migrated with his friends to South Africa in 1922, aged nine, and became a grocer in Cape Town. Washkansky saw active service in World War II in East and North Africa and Italy. After the war, he married his wife Ann.

Washkansky was an avid sportsman. He took part in soccer, swimming, and weightlifting. However, late in his life his health declined substantially: he was diabetic, and had an incurable heart disease, causing him to suffer three heart attacks. The last of these heart attacks led to congestive heart failure.

He received his heart transplant on 3 December 1967, at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The donor was Denise Darvall, who had recently been critically injured in a car accident, and the procedure was performed by Professor Christiaan Barnard. It was a success, but Washkansky had a weakened immune system and died of double pneumonia eighteen days after the transplant.

His grandson, Dale Washkansky, is a South African artist.


12-03-2007, 06:25 AM
The Bhopal Disaster took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984, in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. A Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, killing between 2500 and 5000 people. Bhopal is frequently cited as one of the world's worst industrial disasters. The International Medical Commission on Bhopal was established in 1993 to respond to the disasters.


12-03-2007, 06:41 AM
The first commercial SMS message was sent over the Vodafone GSM network in the United Kingdom on 3 December 1992, from Neil Papworth of Airwide Solutions (using a personal computer) to Richard Jarvis of Vodafone (using an Orbitel 901 handset). The text of the message was "Merry Christmas".


Orbitel phone

12-04-2007, 06:56 PM
1259 - Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.

The agreement resulted in the fact that the English kings had to pay homage liege to the French monarchs and therefore they became French vassals. The situation did not help the friendly relationship between the two states, as it made two sovereigns of equal powers in their countries in fact unequal. According to professor Malcolm Vale, the treaty of Paris was one of the indirect causes of Hundred Years War.


12-04-2007, 06:57 PM
Sladys..all your posts say 3.11... It's December, the 12th month. =P

I'm in school so its too laggy (bas school computers) to edit it..

12-04-2007, 07:00 PM
On December 4, 1619, a group of 38 English settlers arrived at Berkeley Hundred which comprised about eight thousand acres (32 km²) on the north bank of the James River near Herring Creek in an area then known as Charles Cittie (sic) about 20 miles upstream from Jamestown, where the first permanent settlement of the Colony of Virginia was established on May 14, 1607.

The group's charter required that the day of arrival be observed yearly as a "day of thanksgiving" to God. On that first day, Captain John Woodleaf held the service of thanksgiving. As quoted from the section of the Charter of Berkeley Hundred specifying the thanksgiving service...


12-04-2007, 07:03 PM
1791 - The first issue of The Observer, the world's first Sunday newspaper, is published.


12-04-2007, 07:11 PM
The Mary Celeste was a brigantine found in the Atlantic Ocean unmanned and under full sail heading towards the Strait of Gibraltar in 1872. The fate of the crew is the subject of much speculation: theories range from alcoholic fumes to underwater earthquakes, and there is a large number of fictional accounts. The Mary Celeste is often described as the archetypal ghost ship.

The Mary Celeste was a 103-foot (31-metre), 282-ton brigantine. She was built in 1861 as the Amazon at Spencer's Island, Nova Scotia, the first large vessel built in this community.

On December 4, 1872, the Mary Celeste was sighted by the Dei Gratia, commanded by Captain David Reed Morehouse, who knew Captain Briggs. The Dei Gratia had left New York harbour only seven days after the Mary Celeste. Dei Gratia's crew observed her for two hours, under full sail and heading toward the Strait of Gibraltar. They concluded that she was drifting, though she was flying no distress signals.


12-04-2007, 07:14 PM
1969 - Surfer Greg Noll rides a 65-foot high wave off the North Shore of Oahu, still the highest ocean surfing ever recorded.


12-04-2007, 07:21 PM
Malaysia Airlines Flight 653 (MH653), a Boeing 737-2H6 registered as 9M-MBD (delivered in September 1972 as 9M-AQO), was a flight which crashed at Tanjung Kupang, Johor, in Malaysia on the evening of December 4, 1977. It was the first fatal accident for Malaysia Airlines, with all 93 passengers and 7 crew killed instantly. The flight was apparently hijacked as soon as it reached cruise level; the circumstances in which this and the subsequent crash occurred remain unsolved.

12-04-2007, 07:23 PM
On September 24, 1980, John Bonham was picked up by Led Zeppelin assistant Rex King to attend rehearsals at Bray Studios for the upcoming tour of the United States, the band's first since 1977. During the journey Bonham had asked to stop for breakfast, where he downed four quadruple vodkas (sixteen shots-or roughly 400ml-of vodka), with a ham roll. After taking a bite of the ham roll he said to his assistant, "Breakfast." He continued to drink heavily when he arrived at the studio. A halt was called to the rehearsals late in the evening and the band retired to Page's house — The Old Mill House in Clewer, Windsor. After midnight, Bonham had fallen asleep and was taken to bed and placed on his side. Benji LeFevre (who had replaced Richard Cole as Led Zeppelin's tour manager) and John Paul Jones found him dead the next morning. Bonham was 32 years old.

The cause of death was asphyxiation from vomit. A subsequent autopsy found no other drugs in Bonham's body. The alcoholism that had plagued the drummer since his earliest days with the band ultimately led to his death. Bonham was cremated on October 10, 1980, at Rushock parish church in Worcestershire.

Despite rumours that Cozy Powell, Carmine Appice, Barriemore Barlow, Simon Kirke or Bev Bevan would join the group as his replacement, the remaining members decided to disband Led Zeppelin after Bonham's death. They issued a press statement on December 4, 1980 confirming that the band would not continue without Bonham. "We wish it to be known that the loss of our dear friend, and the deep sense of undivided harmony felt by ourselves and our manager, have led us to decide that we could not continue as we were."

Captain Hornblower
12-04-2007, 08:44 PM
I'm in school so its too laggy (bas school computers) to edit it..
I am at home after a another busy day of work and fixed it, and the typo in your headline too... :yep: :D

12-04-2007, 08:47 PM
And what I wouldn't give to be in London on Monday - http://www.ledzeppelin.com/reunion/

12-04-2007, 10:15 PM
When I wrte my posts on dec. 3.rd I had arrived home from christmas dinner. Too much christmas beer, Glögg (scandinavian Glühwein) ond other drinks.

No wonder I wrote the wrong month. :spin:

Thanks for edit the right month, captn. :givebeer:

Captain Hornblower
12-05-2007, 05:06 AM
You are welcome, buddy :)

12-06-2007, 05:43 PM
The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., a privately held company located in Chicago, USA. The articles in the Britannica are aimed at educated adult readers, and written by a staff of 19 full-time editors and over 4,000 expert contributors. It has been widely considered to be the most scholarly of encyclopaedias.

The Britannica is the oldest English-language encyclopaedia still in print. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in Edinburgh and quickly grew in popularity and size, with its third edition in 1801 reaching 20 volumes. Its rising stature helped in recruiting eminent contributors, and the 9th edition (1875–1889) and the 11th edition (1911) are regarded as landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition, the Britannica gradually shortened and simplified its articles in order to broaden its North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt a "continuous revision" policy, in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted and every article is updated on a regular schedule.

The current 15th edition has a unique three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles (generally having fewer than 750 words), a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles (having from two to 310 pages) and a single Propædia volume intended to give a hierarchical outline of human knowledge. The Micropædia is meant for quick fact-checking and as a guide to the Macropædia; readers are advised to study the Propædia outline to understand a subject's context and to find other, more detailed articles. The size of the Britannica has remained roughly constant over the past 70 years, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Although publication has been based in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has maintained its traditional British spelling.

Over the course of its history, the Britannica has had difficulty remaining profitable—a problem faced by many encyclopaedias. Some articles in certain earlier editions of the Britannica have been criticised for inaccuracy, bias or unqualified contributors. The accuracy of parts of the present edition has likewise been questioned, although such criticisms have been challenged by the Britannica's management. Despite these criticisms, the Britannica retains its reputation as a reliable research tool.


12-06-2007, 05:47 PM
The Halifax Explosion occurred on Thursday, December 6, 1917, when the City of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the huge detonation of a French cargo ship, fully loaded with wartime explosives, that had accidentally collided with a Norwegian ship in "The Narrows" section of the Halifax Harbour. Approximately 2,000 people (mostly Canadians) were killed by debris, fires, or collapsed buildings, and it is estimated that over 9,000 people were injured. This was the largest artificial explosion until the first atomic bomb test explosion in 1945 and is still one of the world's largest artificial non-nuclear explosions to date.

At 8:40 in the morning, Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship which was chartered by the French government to carry munitions, collided with the unloaded Norwegian ship Imo, chartered by the Commission for Relief in Belgium to carry relief supplies. Mont-Blanc caught fire ten minutes after the collision and exploded about twenty-five minutes later (at 9:04:35 AM). All buildings and structures within two square kilometres of the explosion were obliterated, including those in the neighbouring communities of Richmond and Dartmouth. The explosion caused a tsunami in the harbour, and a pressure wave of air that snapped trees, bent iron rails, demolished buildings, grounded vessels, and carried fragments of the Mont-Blanc for kilometres.


12-07-2007, 05:07 AM
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a pre-emptive military strike on the United States Pacific Fleet base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by the Empire of Japan's Imperial Japanese Navy, on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 that made the United States enter World War II. Two aerial attack waves, totalling 350 aircraft, were launched from six aircraft carriers with the intent to destroy the United States Pacific Fleet.

The attack wrecked two U.S. Navy battleships, one minelayer, and two destroyers beyond repair, and destroyed 188 aircraft; personnel losses were 2,333 killed and 1,139 wounded. Damaged warships included three cruisers, a destroyer, and six battleships (one deliberately grounded, later refloated and repaired; two sunk at their berths, later raised, repaired, and restored to Fleet service late in the war). Vital fuel storage, shipyards, and submarine facilities were not hit. Japanese losses were minimal, at 29 aircraft and five midget submarines, with 65 servicemen killed or wounded.

12-08-2007, 11:34 AM
Mark David Chapman shoots and kills John Lennon in front of The Dakota apartment building with five bullets.




12-14-2007, 08:41 PM
The brothers, Joseph Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were the inventors of the montgolfière, globe airostatique or European hot air balloon. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent to carry a young physician and an audacious army officer into the sky. They were later enobled with their father and brothers and sisters as de Montgolfier.


12-14-2007, 08:44 PM
The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. It was the first successful powered, piloted, controlled heavier-than-air aircraft.



12-14-2007, 08:47 PM
Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. June 18, 1928) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He led the first Antarctic expedition to the South Pole between 1910 and 1912. He was also the first person to reach both the North and South Poles. He is known as the first to traverse the Northwest Passage. He disappeared in June 1928 while taking part in a rescue mission. With Douglas Mawson, Robert Falcon Scott, and Ernest Shackleton, Amundsen was a key expedition leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.


12-23-2007, 04:16 AM
The Lockheed SR-71 is an advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works. The SR-71 was unofficially named the Blackbird, and called the Habu (Japanese for "snake") by its crews. Clarence "Kelly" Johnson was responsible for many of the design's advanced concepts, with the SR-71 being one of the first aircraft shaped to reduce its radar cross section, although its radar signature could be tracked by contemporary systems unlike later "stealth" aircraft. A defensive feature of the aircraft is its high speed and operating altitude; whereby if a surface-to-air missile launch was detected, standard evasive action was simply to accelerate. The SR-71 line was in service from 1964 to 1998, with 12 of the 32 aircraft being destroyed in accidents, though none was lost to enemy action.


12-23-2007, 04:31 AM
The Vickers Wellington was a British twin-engine, medium bomber designed in the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Weybridge, Surrey, by Vickers-Armstrongs' Chief Designer, R.K. Pierson. It was widely used in the first two years of World War II, before being replaced as a bomber by much larger four-engine designs like the Avro Lancaster. The Wellington was popularly known as 'the Wimpy' by service personnel, after J. Wellington Wimpy from the Popeye cartoons.


12-24-2007, 11:14 PM
"Silent Night" ("Stille Nacht") is a popular Christmas carol. The original lyrics of the song Stille Nacht were written in German by the priest Father Josef Mohr and the melody was composed by the Austrian headmaster Franz Xaver Gruber. The version of the melody that is generally sung today differs slightly (particularly in the final strain) from Gruber's original. Today, the lyrics and melody are in the public domain.



"Silent Night" in 130 languages: http://silentnight.web.za/translate/

12-24-2007, 11:24 PM
In Ny Kongensgade in Copenhagen the family Frederikke Louise og dr. Martin Lehman (born in Holstein in Germany) lit the first christmas tree with candles.

But the first time a tree was lit was in 1808 when Countess Wilhelmine from Holsteinborg Manor lit candles on a tree.

Traditional danish christmas tree:

12-24-2007, 11:27 PM
Kiritimati (pronounced [kəˈrɪsməs])—also called Christmas Island—is a Pacific Ocean atoll in the northern Line Islands and part of the Republic of Kiribati. The island has the greatest land area of any coral atoll in the world: 642 square kilometres (248 sq mi). It comprises over 70% of the total land area of Kiribati, a nation encompassing 33 Pacific atolls.

Kiritimati is about 150 km (93 mi) in perimeter. Parts of its lagoon are dried out. In addition to the main island, there are several smaller ones. Cook Island has a size of 19 ha (47 acres) and a large seabird colony. Other islands are Motu Upua (> 19 ha/47 acres), Ngaontetaake (27 ha/67 acres), and Motu Tabu (3.5 ha/8.6 acres).


12-30-2007, 03:36 PM
December 30 is the 364th day in the Gregorian Calendar.

On December 30, 2006 (last year), Saddam Hussein was executed by hanging.

01-14-2008, 06:17 PM
The Fox network’s animated show The Simpsons premiered

January 14th 1973

Super Bowl VII (at Los Angeles): Miami Dolphins 14, Washington Redskins 7. This was the season that Bob Griese and the Dolphins finished with a perfect 17-0 record. MVP: Dolphins’ S Jake Scott. Tickets: $15.00

01-22-2008, 11:19 PM
Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). They have generally had a high reputation for discipline and loyalty to their employers. Some of these units have also served as fighting troops in the field. There were also regular Swiss mercenary regiments serving as line troops in various armies, notably those of France, Spain and Naples until the 19th century who were not household or guard units.

Various "Swiss Guards" have existed. The earliest such detachment was the Swiss "Hundred Guard" (Cent-Garde) at the French court (1497 – 1830). This small force was complemented in 1567 by a Swiss Guard regiment. The Papal Swiss Guard in the Vatican was founded in 1506 and is the only Swiss Guard that still exists. In the 18th century several other Swiss Guards existed for periods in various European courts.


01-22-2008, 11:23 PM
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. Her reign lasted 63 years and seven months, longer than that of any other British monarch. The period centred on her reign is known as the Victorian era.

Though Victoria ascended the throne at a time when the United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy in which the king or queen held few political powers, she still served as a very important symbolic figure of her time. The Victorian era represented the height of the Industrial Revolution, a period of significant social, economic, and technological progress in the United Kingdom. Victoria's reign was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire; during this period it reached its zenith, becoming the foremost global power of the time.

Victoria was the granddaughter of George III, and was a descendant of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.


01-22-2008, 11:26 PM
The de Havilland Comet developed and manufactured by de Havilland, first flew in 1949 and was the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. Considered a landmark British aeronautical design, after a successful introduction into commercial service, early Comet models suffered from catastrophic metal fatigue, causing a string of well-publicised accidents, The Comet was withdrawn temporarily and redesigned.

The new Comet 4 series subsequently enjoyed a long and productive career of over 30 years, although sales never fully recovered. The Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, the military derivative of the Comet airliner, is still in service. In 2007, the original decades-old airframes were being rebuilt with new wings and engines to produce the Nimrod MRA 4, expected to serve with Britain's Royal Air Force until the 2020s, more than 70 years after the Comet's first flight.


01-22-2008, 11:32 PM
The Royal Exchange in the City of London was founded in 1565 by Sir Thomas Gresham to act as a centre of commerce for the city. The site was provided by the Corporation of London and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, and is roughly triangular, formed by the converging streets of Cornhill and Threadneedle Street. The design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp.

The Royal Exchange was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth I who awarded the building its Royal title, on January 23, 1571.

Gresham's original building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A second exchange was built on the site, designed by Edward Jerman, which opened in 1669, and which was destroyed by fire in January 1838.


01-22-2008, 11:53 PM
The Horsholm motorway, today called Helsingor-Motorvejen, was opened in a snowy day at the village Horsholm north of Copenhagen.

300 guests were driven to the opening cenery but got stuck in the snow so they had to have help to get free of the snow.

The opening ceremony was broadcasted in the radio.

1926 it was decided to build the road but how it should be wasn't clear yet. First in 1938 the work began but had to stop because of the german occupation 1940-45. 1946 the work begain again.

On the first day 4,140 cars and 302 motorcycles drove on the newly opened 12 km road.

The Helsingor Motorway goes from Copenhagen to Helsingor, the E47.

01-23-2008, 12:15 AM
On 23 January 1973 at around one in the morning a volcanic eruption of the mountain Eldfell began on Heimaey. During the night the 5000 inhabitants of the island were evacuated, mostly by fishing boats, as almost the entire fishing fleet was in dock. The encroaching lava flow threatened to destroy the harbour that was the main source of livelihood for most of the town. However, by spraying the lava constantly with cold sea water some of it solidified and diverted the rest, saving the harbour from destruction. During the eruption, though, half of the town was crushed and the island grew a great deal.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Early_stages_of_the_1973_eruption_of_Eldfell.jpg http://www.icelandicgeographic.is/Eldgos.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Houses_buried_by_ash_from_Edlfell.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Lava_flow_advances_down_a_Heimaey_street.jpg

More images:

01-24-2008, 08:35 PM
1984 – The first Apple Macintosh, today known as the Macintosh 128K, went on sale, becoming the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command line interface.

01-26-2008, 12:38 PM
Niagara Falls froze in this day to ice.

But in fact, the falls never froze completely.

From Answers.yahoo.com:
The tremendous volume of water never stops flowing, However, the falling water and mist create ice formations along the banks of the falls and river.
This can result in mounds of ice as thick as fifty feet. If the Winter is cold for long enough, the ice will completely stretch across the river and form what is known as the "ice bridge". This ice bridge can extend for several miles down river until it reaches the area known as the lower rapids.

Until 1912,visitors were allowed to actually walk out on the ice bridge and view the Falls from below. February 24th of 1888 the local newspaper reported that at least 20,000 people watched or tobogganed on the ice. Shanties selling liquor, photographs and curiosities abounded. On February 4th 1912 the ice bridge broke up and three tourists lives were lost.

There can also be a great deal of "mini-icebergs" which flow down the Niagara River from frozen Lake Erie. The flow of ice has been reduced
considerably by the yearly installation of the "ice-boom" on Lake Erie. The ice-boom is a long floating chain (2miles- 3.2 KM) of steel floats strung across the Niagara River from Buffalo New York to Fort Erie Ontario.
It is set in place during the month of December and removed during the month of March or April. It is maintained by the New York State Power Authority. The ice boom helps prevent the ice from clogging the river and most importantly the hydroelectric companies water intakes.

HOWEVER.... The flow of water was stopped completely over both falls on March 29th 1848 due to an ice jam in the upper river for several hours. This is the only known time to have occurred. The Falls did not actually freeze over, but the flow was stopped to the point where people actually walked out and recovered artifacts from the riverbed!"

Other reported years when Niagara Falls froze was 1848, 1883, 1896, 1904, 1909, 1911 and 1947.

Photos from frozen Niagara Falls:
http://bp3.blogger.com/_NpINLHeo8rM/RuEzAvjOTHI/AAAAAAAAGUk/Fp3cCwzD7H8/s400/frozenfalls+1.jpg http://bp2.blogger.com/_NpINLHeo8rM/RuEzAfjOTGI/AAAAAAAAGUc/wnHwYugCN4M/s400/frozenfalls.jpg http://bp2.blogger.com/_NpINLHeo8rM/RuEzAfjOTGI/AAAAAAAAGUc/wnHwYugCN4M/s400/frozenfalls.jpg



01-28-2008, 06:17 PM
After a 10 year development phase LEGO was patended worldwide. 1949 the known brick was introduced, it was without the today known tubes

LEGO is a line of building toys manufactured by the LEGO Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark.

The company's flagship product, commonly referred to as Lego bricks, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks and an accompanying array of gears, minifigures and various other parts. There are other Lego pieces which can be assembled and connected in many ways, such as vehicles, buildings and even working robots.


Even Google celebrated the day with their Google sign made of LEGO bricks.

LEGO toy made of wood and the famous brick of today.
http://www.brickshelf.com/gallery/Swisso/vintage/vintage/vintage/vintage/vintage_lego_003.jpg http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/11/1129_makingof_lego/image/intro.jpg

02-03-2008, 01:05 PM
Buddy Holley, Ritchie Valens and J.P. Richardson (The Big Bopper) were killed in a plane wreck just outside of Clear Lake, Iowa.

Waylon Jennings was supposed to be on the flight, but gave up his seat to Richardson since The Big Bopper had the flu.

Band member Tommy Allsup was also scheduled to fly (the rest of the band was going by bus), but Ritchie Valens had never flown before and asked Allsup for his seat. They flipped a coin to decide who would get the last seat. Valens won the coin toss.



Captain Hornblower
02-06-2008, 05:03 AM
The Munich air disaster took place on 6 February 1958, when British European Airways Flight 609 crashed on its third attempt to take off from a slush-covered runway at the Munich-Riem airport in Munich, West Germany. On board the plane was the Manchester United football team, nicknamed the Busby Babes, along with a number of supporters and journalists. Twenty-three of the 44 passengers on board the aircraft died in the disaster.

The flight was operated by British European Airways (BEA) as an "Elizabethan" class Airspeed Ambassador charter aircraft G-ALZU Lord Burghley.

The European Cup had been contested since 1955, although no English club took part in the very first tournament on account of Football League rules. Manchester United entered the 1956-57 tournament and reached the semi-finals, being knocked out by eventual winners Real Madrid; they were thus one of the favourites for the 1957-58 tournament. Domestic league matches were played on Saturdays and European matches were played midweek, so although air travel was risky at the time, it was the only practical choice if United were to fulfil their league fixtures. Their team was known as the Busby Babes, a reference to their manager Matt Busby and to the average age of the players, which was unusually young.

The club had chartered an aeroplane to fly them home from their European Cup match against the Yugoslavian team Crvena Zvezda (Red Star Belgrade), which ended in a 3-3 draw (United won the tie 5-4 on aggregate). The takeoff from Belgrade was delayed for an hour as the United player Johnny Berry had lost his passport, then the plane made a scheduled stop in Munich to refuel.

Captain James Thain, the pilot, tried to take off twice, but both attempts were aborted due to engine surging. When a third take off was attempted, at 3:04 pm, the plane failed to gain adequate height and crashed into the fence surrounding the airport, then into a house, which was unoccupied at the time.

Although the crash was originally blamed on pilot error, it was subsequently found to have been caused by the build-up of slush towards the ends of the runway, causing deceleration of the aircraft and preventing safe flying speed from being attained. During the take off, the aircraft had attained a speed of 117 kt (217 km/h) but on entering the slush speed dropped to 105 kt (194 km/h), too slow for flight, with not enough runway remaining to abort the take off. Aircraft with tail-wheel undercarriages had not been greatly affected by slush, due to the geometry of these undercarriages in relation to the aircraft's centre of gravity, but newer types, such as the Ambassador, with nose wheel landing-gear and the main wheels behind the centre of gravity, were found to be vulnerable. The accident resulted in the instigation of operating limits for the amount of slush build-up permitted on runways.

Despite this conclusion, the German airport authorities (who were legally responsible for the state of the airport's runways, but generally not aware of the then unknown danger of slush on runways for aircraft like the Ambassador) took legal action against Captain Thain, who had survived the crash, claiming he had taken off without deicing the wings and that responsibility for the accident was his alone, despite several witnesses stating that this was not so. The basis of the German authorities' case relied on a photograph of the aircraft (published in several newspapers) taken shortly before take off, that appeared to show snow on the upper wing surfaces. When the original negative was examined, however, no snow or ice could be seen, the 'snow' having been due to the published pictures being produced from a copy negative. The witnesses were not called to the German inquiry and proceedings against Thain dragged on until 1968, when he was finally cleared of any responsibility for the crash. As the official cause, British authorities recorded a build-up of melting snow on the runway which prevented the Elizabethan from reaching the required take-off speed. Thain, having been dismissed by BEA shortly after the accident and never reengaged, retired and returned to run his poultry farm in Berkshire. He died of a heart attack at the age of 53, in 1975.


Manchester United players

* Geoff Bent
* Roger Byrne
* Eddie Colman
* Duncan Edwards (survived the crash but died in hospital 15 days later)
* Mark Jones
* David Pegg
* Tommy Taylor
* Liam 'Billy' Whelan


* Walter Crickmer - Club Secretary
* Bert Whalley - Chief Coach
* Tom Curry - Trainer
* Alf Clarke - journalist, Manchester Evening Chronicle
* Don Davies - journalist, Manchester Guardian
* George Follows - journalist, Daily Herald
* Tom Jackson - journalist, Manchester Evening News
* Archie Ledbrooke - journalist, Daily Mirror
* Henry Rose - journalist, Daily Express
* Eric Thompson - journalist, Daily Mail
* Frank Swift - journalist, News of the World (also former England and Manchester City goalkeeper)
* Captain Kenneth "Ken" Rayment - British co-pilot who survived the crash but suffered multiple injuries and died three weeks later as a result of brain damage. He was one of two people who died in hospital after being injured in the crash.
* Bela Miklos - travel agent
* Willie Satinoff - supporter, racecourse owner and close friend of Matt Busby
* Tom Cable - steward


Manchester United players
* Johnny Berry (died in 1994)
* Jackie Blanchflower (died in 1998)
* Dennis Viollet (died in 1999)
* Ray Wood (died in 2002)

Still alive:

* Bobby Charlton
* Bill Foulkes
* Harry Gregg
* Kenny Morgans
* Albert Scanlon

Other survivors

* Matt Busby - team manager (died in 1994)
* Frank Taylor - journalist (died in 2002)
* James Thain - captain (died in 1975)
* George (Bill) Rodgers - radio officer (death date unknown)
* Peter Howard - photographer (died in 1996)
* Margaret Bellis - stewardess (died in 1990s)

Still alive:

* Ted Ellyard - photographer
* Vera Lukić and baby daughter Venona - passengers saved by Manchester United player Harry Gregg. In addition, at the time of the accident, Vera Lukić was pregnant with her later-born son Zoran.[3]
* Mrs Miklos - wife of Bela Miklos, the travel agent that arranged trip and died in the crash
* Nebojsa Bato Tomašević - passenger

A memorial was erected here (http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile29017/Memorial-of-Manchester-United-disaster-of-1958.htm)

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich_air_disaster)