28.07.754 - Pepin the Younger crowned
Pepin the Younger (714 – September 24, 768), known for being the father of Charlemagne or Charles the Great, was crowned in the Saint Denis Basilica (near Paris) to king of the Franks.
28.07.1540 - Thomas Cromwell executed
Thomas Cromwell (1485 - 28.07.1540), 1st Earl of Essex (C. 1485 – 28 July 1540) and King Henry VIII of England's chief minister 1532–1540, was executed on 28.07.1540 after his downfall as the chief minister of the king.
Cromwell had supported Henry in disposing of Anne Boleyn and replacing her with Jane Seymour. His downfall was the haste with which he encouraged the king to re-marry following Jane's premature death. The marriage to Anne of Cleves, a political alliance which Cromwell had urged on Henry, was a disaster, and this was all the opportunity that Cromwell's conservative opponents, most notably the Duke of Norfolk, needed to press for his arrest. Whilst at a Council meeting on 10 June 1540, Cromwell was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Cromwell was subject to an Act of Attainder and was kept alive by Henry so he could be divorced from Anne.
He was then privately executed at the Tower on 28 July 1540. It is said that Henry intentionally chose an inexperienced executioner -- the teenager made three attempts at chopping Cromwell's head before he succeeded. After execution his head was boiled and then set upon a spike on London Bridge—facing away from the City of London.
28.07.1943 - Hamburg bombed during Operation Gomorrha
The large port city of Hamburg was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused tens of thousands of mostly civilian casualties.
In the night of 27/28 July 1943 a large raid by 787 aircraft guided in by Pathfinders using H2S happened, bombing about 2 miles east of city centre. Because of the unseasonally dry conditions, a firestorm was created in the built-up working-class districts of Hammerbrook, Hamm and Borgfelde. The bombing was more concentrated than the RAF was usually able to manage at this stage of the war. In just over half an hour it is estimated that 550-600 bomb loads fell into an area measuring only 2 miles by 1 mile and this gradually spread the fire eastwards. The firestorm lasted for about three hours, consuming approximately 16,000 multi-storyed apartment buildings and killing an estimated 40,000 people, most of them by carbon monoxide poisoning when all the air was drawn out of their basement shelters. Fearing further raids, two-thirds of Hamburg's population, approximately 1,200,000 people, fled the city in the aftermath.
28.07.1800 - First man on summit of Mt. Großglockner
The first assault on the Großglockner in 1799 failed. In the summer of 1800 a second expedition was organized by Franz-Xaver Salm-Raifferscheid, Prince-Bishop of Gurk: 62 persons, among them 47 guides, took part. The old Salmhütte, at 2750 m, was specially built to furnish shelter for this undertaking. On 28 July 1800, brothers Martin and Sepp Klotz, along with two other carpenters, and even a clergyman from Dölsach named Horasch, challenged themselves to reach the summit by way of the Hohenwartscharte.
29.07.1948 Olympic Games opening in London
The 14th Summer Olympic Games were opened at Empire Stadium (Wembley Stadium) by King George VI. It ended om August 14th.
59 nations attended with 4104 athletes (390 women, 3,714 men) in 136 events. Germany and Japan weren't invited to join the games.
29.07.1981 - Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer
Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor, Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, married Lady Diana Frances Spencer in St. Pauls Cathedral in London.
29.07.1947 - ENIAC turned on
On 29.07.1947 ENICA (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), the first large-scale, electronic, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems, had been turned on at its home in the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and would be in continuous operation until 02.10.1955.
30.07.1932: Olympic Games in Los Angeles
The 10th Olympic Games in Los Angeles were opened. 37 countries attended with 1332 athletes (126 women, 1,206 men) in 117 events.
Automatic time control and photo finish was introduced.
The famous finnish runner, Paavo Nurmi was not allowed to participate in the Marathon race because he had got more money for running in Germany than the IOC allowed.
The olympic village was introduced.
The games closed august 14th.
30.07.1966 FIFA World Cup final at Wembley
England became World Champions in football/soccer by 4:2 after extra time against Germany.
Most famous is the goal by Geoff Hurst to a 3:2 lead in the 98th minute when he shot the ball and it hit the crossbar, bounced down into the goalmouth.
The referee Gottfried Dienst of Switzerland okayed the goal after asking linesman Tofik Bakhramov (USSR).
It has been debated ever since whether it did cross the line or not. Especially in Germany.
Researchers from Oxford University in 1995 announced the results of computer video analysis of the television footage, which gave new angles of view, concluded that the shot had not crossed the line, so should not have been allowed.
02.08.1876: Wild Bill Hickok killed
During a poker game in the saloon of the small town Deadwood SD James Butler known as Wild Bill Hickok was shot by a Jack McCall. The day before McCall lost 110 mio $ to Hickock.
On the evening of August 1, 1876, Wild Bill was playing poker with several men, including Jack McCall, who lost horribly. Wild Bill gave Jack money to buy breakfast, and told him not to play poker again until he could cover his losses. The next day, Wild Bill entered the Nuttall & Mann's saloon and took a seat at a poker table with his back facing the door. Wild Bill would normally sit in a seat with his back facing a corner so he was less vulnerable to an attack from behind, but that day Charlie Rich was sitting in his preferred seat. Subsequently Jack McCall entered, shouted, "Take that!", and shot him in the back of the head with a .45 caliber revolver.
Jack McCall was subsequently arrested on August 29 and brought back to Yankton, South Dakota to be arraigned. Jack McCall was found guilty of the murder of Wild Bill Hickok and was subsequently hanged on March 1, 1877. He was buried with the noose around his neck.
It's said that Hickock won with 2 pairs of eights and aces, today called dead mans hand.
03.08.1492 - Christopher Columbus started his first voyage
On the evening of 03.08.1492, Columbus (*1451 +20.05.1506) departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships; one larger carrack, Santa María and two smaller caravels, Pinta and Niña.
In October he discovered the New World, but that's another day in history ;)
03.08.1914 - Germany declares war to France
On 03.08.1914 the German Reich declared war to France and invaded in Belgium according to the Schlieffen-Plan.
03.08.1958 - USS Nautilus reached the North Pole
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole, which the submarine reached on 03.08.1958.
04.08.1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Incident
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American destroyers, the USS Maddox and the USS Turner Joy. The attacks were alleged to have occurred on 2 August and 4 August 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin.
Later research, including a report released in 2005 by the National Security Agency, indicated that the second attack most likely did not occur, but also attempted to dispel the long-standing assumption that members of the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson had knowingly lied about the nature of the incident.
The outcome of the incident was the passage by Congress of the Southeast Asia Resolution (better known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution), which granted Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression". The resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for escalating American involvement in the Vietnam Conflict.