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Thread: This Day in History

  1. #166
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    Unhappy 13.10.1977: Hijack of LH "Landshut" flight 181

    On October 13, 1977, Lufthansa flight LH181, a Boeing 737 flying from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt with 91 passengers and crew, was hijacked by four militants belonging to "Commando Martyr Halime". Their leader was Zohair Youssif Akache, who went by the alias "Captain Martyr Mahmud."

    The aircraft changed course and landed in Rome for refueling. Just like the kidnappers of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, Mahmud demanded the release of eleven RAF terrorists detained at the JVA Stuttgart-Stammheim prison, and 15 million US Dollars. The Landshut continued its journey, landing in Larnaca, Bahrain and Dubai, following a series of denied landing clearances in other airports across the Arabian Peninsula. On October 15, in Dubai, Captain Jürgen Schumann was able to radio the number of hijackers onboard, which resulted in Mahmud threatening to kill him.

    Flight 181 then flew to Salalah, in Oman, where it was denied landing, and changed course to Aden. As the main runway was blocked by vehicles and the plane was running low on fuel, Captain Schumann had no choice but to land on a sand strip nearby. In order to verify the condition of the landing gear following the rough landing, he was allowed to temporarily leave the plane. However, Schumann did not immediately return to the plane after the inspection, even after numerous attempts to recall him, and a threat to blow up the plane on the ground. The reasons for this prolonged absence are unclear; however, some reports indicate that Schumann notified the Yemeni authorities of the location of the Semtex explosives, and was forced to remain in the control tower [1]. Upon his return to the aircraft and after take-off, Mahmud shot Schumann in the head, in the main passenger cabin, before he had a chance to explain himself.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lufthansa_Flight_181

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    Post 21.10.1805: Battle of Trafalgar

    The Battle of Trafalgar saw the British decisively defeat a combined French and Spanish fleet on 21 October 1805 in the most significant naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars. A Royal Navy fleet of 27 ships of the line destroyed an allied French and Spanish fleet of 33 ships of the line west of Cape Trafalgar in south-west Spain. The French and Spanish lost 22 ships, while the British lost none. The British commander Admiral Lord Nelson died late in the battle, by which time he had ensured his place as Britain's greatest naval hero.

    It was part of the War of the Third Coalition, and a pivotal naval battle of the 19th century. The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the 18th century. However, by the time it was fought, Napoleon had abandoned his plans to invade southern England and instead was defeating Britain's allies in Germany.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trafalgar

  3. #168
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    Default October 24, 1929 Stock Market Crash

    The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Crash of ’29, was one of the most devastating stock market crashes in American history. It consists of Black Thursday (October 24, 1929), the initial crash and Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929), the crash that caused general panic five days later. The crash marked the beginning of widespread and long-lasting consequences for the United States. Though economists and historians disagree on exactly what role the crash had in the subsequent economic fallout, some regard it as the start of the Great Depression. Most historians, however, agree that it was actually a symptom of the Great Depression, rather than a cause. The crash was also the starting point of important financial reforms and trading regulations
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    Default oct 26, 1881 Gunfight at the OK corral

    The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral was a gunfight that has been portrayed in numerous Western films. It has come to symbolize the struggle between law-and-order and open-banditry and rustling in frontier towns of the Old West where law enforcement was often thin, and where some of the urban-vs.-rural and North-vs.-South tensions of the American Civil War were still very much active.

    The gunfight happened on Wednesday afternoon at about 3:00PM on October 26, 1881, in a vacant lot, known as lot 2, in block 17, behind the corral in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, United States. Some of the fighting was in Fremont Street in front of the vacant lot. About 30 shots were fired in 30 seconds.
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  5. #170
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    Default Oct 28th-1886 Staue of Liberty dedicated.

    October 28th, 1886 - In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
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  6. #171
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    Default War of the worlds

    1938 - Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds, causing a nationwide panic
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    Post 30.10.1974: Rumble in the jungle, Boxfight Ali-Foreman in Zaire

    The Rumble in The Jungle was a historic boxing event that took place on October 30, 1974, in the May 20 Stadium in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo). It pitted then world Heavyweight champion George Foreman against former world champion and challenger Muhammad Ali, who became the second fighter ever, after Floyd Patterson, to recover the world's Heavyweight crown.

    The event was Don King's first venture as a professional boxing promoter. He managed to get both Ali and Foreman to sign separate contracts saying they would fight for him if he could get 5 million dollars to be their prize. However, King did not have the money. So he began looking for an outside country to sponsor the event. Zaire's flamboyant president Mobutu Sésé Seko asked for the fight to be held in his country, eager for the publicity such a high-profile event would bring.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rumble_in_the_Jungle

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    Unhappy 30.10.1961: Soviet hydrogen bomb, Tsar Bomba, testing on Novya Zemlya

    Tsar Bomba (Царь-бомба, literally "Emperor Bomb") is the Western name for the RDS-220, which was the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. Developed by the Soviet Union, the bomb had a yield of about 50 megatons of TNT and it was codenamed Ivan by its developers.

    The bomb was tested on October 30, 1961, in Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago in the Arctic Sea. The device was scaled down from its original design of 100 megatons to reduce the resulting nuclear fallout.[1]

    The Tsar bomba never entered service. It was just a demonstration of Soviet scientific, technical and military power of that time. One real Tsar bomba and one mockup were constructed. The real bomb was tested, the mockup was stored in the Russian Nuclear Weapons Museum in the Russian town of Sarov.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsar_Bomba

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    Unhappy 30.10.1864: Second Schleswig War ends, Denmark loose southern Jutland to Prussia

    The Second Schleswig War (Danish: 2. Slesvigske Krig; German: Zweiter Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) was the second military conflict due to the Schleswig-Holstein Question. The war began on February 1, 1864 when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig. The war ended on October 30, 1864 with the Treaty of Vienna (1864) causing Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussian and Austrian administration, respectively.

    Other names by which the war is known include the Danish-Prussian War, the German-Danish War (German: Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg), the Prusso-Danish War, the War of 1864, and the Schleswig-Holstein War of Succession.

    The war took place in 1864 between Denmark on the one side and Prussia and Austria on the other side. Like the First Schleswig War (1848–51), it was fought for control of the duchies because of succession disputes concerning the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg when the Danish king died without an heir acceptable to the German Confederation. Decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol.

    Reasons for the war were the ethnic controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_war_of_Schleswig

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    Post 30.10.1863: Danish Prince arrives in Athens as King Georg I of Greece

    George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος A', Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων, Georgios A' Vasileus ton Ellinon; December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 to 1913. Originally a Danish prince, when only 17 years old he was elected King by the Greek National Assembly, which had deposed the former King Otto. His nomination was both suggested and supported by the Great Powers (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire and Russian Empire).

    As the first monarch of the new Greek dynasty, his 50-year reign (the longest in modern Greek history) was characterized by territorial gains as Greece established its place in pre-World War I Europe. Two weeks short of the fiftieth anniversary of his accession, and during the First Balkan War, he was assassinated. In sharp contrast to his reign, the reigns of his successors would prove short and insecure.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_I_of_Greece

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    Post 1.11.1512: The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is presented for the public.

    The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. Its fame rests on its architecture, which evokes Solomon's Temple of the Old Testament, its decoration, frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists, including Michelangelo whose ceiling is legendary, and its purpose, as a site of papal religious and functionary activity, notably the conclave, at which a new Pope is selected.

    The Sistine Chapel is most famously known for being the location of Papal conclaves, for the election of a new Pope. More commonly, it is the physical chapel of the Papal Chapel. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, this corporate body comprised about 200 persons, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity.

    There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet. Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, generally St. Peters, and were attended by large congregations. These included the Christmas Day and Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Sistine Chapel was purpose built on the site of its predecessor, the Cappella Maggiore, which had served the same purpose.

    The Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel also in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, which had been decorated by Fra Angelico. The Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning.

    The present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore, was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV, for whom it is named, and built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1484. The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original closely. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the late 15th century, including Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Perugino.

    The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

    The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, and continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Allegri's Miserere, a setting of the psalm for Maundy Thursday.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistine_Chapel

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    Unhappy 1.11.1755: Lisbon destroyed by earthquake and tsunami

    The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on November 1, 1755, at 9:40 in the morning. It was one of the most destructive and deadly earthquakes in history, killing between 60,000 and 100,000 people . The earthquake was followed by a tsunami and fire, resulting in the near-total destruction of Lisbon. The earthquake accentuated political tensions in Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's eighteenth-century colonial ambitions.

    The event was widely discussed by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy and in the philosophy of the sublime. As the first earthquake studied scientifically for its effects over a large area, it signaled the birth of modern seismology. Geologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake approached magnitude 9 on the Richter scale, with an epicenter in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1755_Lisbon_earthquake

    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile209...-in-Lisbon.htm

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    Post 1.11.1800: First President to live in The White House

    US President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_House

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams

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    Unhappy 1.11.1951: Non voluntarily US soldies exposed in nuke bomb test, DOG.

    Atomic bomb experiment DOG, a nuclear weapon dropped from an aircraft, was exploded at 7:30 AM, on November 1, 1951. The nuclear bomb detonated 1,417 feet above the terrain of Area 7, Yucca Flat, at the National Test Site in Nevada. As part of Exercise Desert Rock I, the armed services fielded a troop observer program with approximately 2,800 participants, a tactical troop maneuver with approximately 880 participants, and damage effects tests with approximately 60 participants. All troops observed the shot from a location 11 kilometers south of ground zero.

    The following United States Army units conducted the tactical maneuver at atomic bomb experiment DOG:

    1st Battalion, 188th Airborne Infantry Regiment, 11th Airborne Division
    3rd Medical Platoon, 188th Airborne Medical Company
    Platoon, Company A, 127th Engineer Battalion
    (all from Camp Campbell, KY)

    and Battery C, 546th Field Artillery Battalion from Fort Lewis, WA.

    The Army units formed a Battalion Combat Team (BCT) for the maneuver. During the weeks preceding the shot, BCT personnel dug foxholes and built gun emplacements and bunkers in a tactical defensive position southwest of ground zero. Several hours before the shot, the BCT and observers went by truck and bus convoy into the forward area. They proceeded to the observation point about 11 kilometers from ground zero, where they were intentionally exposed to radiation when DOG exploded. After the detonation, the troops moved by convoy to their tactical defensive position, where they viewed the effects of the nuclear detonation on the fortifications. The BCT then proceeded in an attack formation to its objective. The objective was southwest of ground zero; at its closest point, it was 460 meters from ground zero. The BCT was accompanied by radiological safety monitors and was preceded by radiation survey teams who determined the limits of safe advance. After reaching the objective, the troops toured two equipment displays 900 and 1,350 meters south of ground zero. The troops were then trucked to a display position over 6 kilometers south of ground zero. During these activities, Human Resources Research Office personnel tested the troops to determine their psychological reactions to the detonation [Editor�s Note: In other words, the troops were used as human guinea pigs in an atomic experiment—not quite Josef Mengele's modus operandi, but about as close to it as the United States Army has ever come].

    Atomic bomb blast SUGAR, the first surface detonation at the National Test Site (formerly known as the National Proving Grounds) was fired at 9 AM, on November 19, 1951. The SUGAR device was detonated 3.5 feet above the ground in Area 9, Yucca Flat. The initial survey detected onsite fallout to the north of ground zero.

    About 550 Department of Defense personnel participated in scientific projects conducted by the two test units at Shot SUGAR. Approximately 450 SWC participants performed support missions. Perhaps an additional 100 Department of Defense personnel worked for various units coordinated by the test organization.

    Atomic bomb blast UNCLE, the first underground nuclear detonation at the National Test Site in Nevada, was fired at noon on November 29, 1951. The nuclear device was detonated 17 feet beneath the ground in Area 10 of Yucca Flat. The initial survey showed onsite fallout north of ground zero. As with SUGAR, the troops observed the detonation at a distance of 5 miles. Near ground zero the radiation level was 5000 roentgens/hour at one hour after the test, with levels of 1000 R/hr extending up to 1200 yards from the burst point. Hazardous levels of 100 R/hr extended past 5000 yards in some areas.

    Exposure from Dominic I (excerpt from DTRA fact sheet)

    In general, Dominic I doses were as follows: Approximately 5 percent (some 1,200 military personnel) of Dominic I personnel had doses greater than 0.5 rem. Approximately 230 personnel had doses greater than 2.0 rem, with approximately 40 people receiving doses over 5.0 rem. Included in this group are 20 individuals with doses greater than 10.0 rem; the highest total dose for the entire operation was 17.68 rem.

    The government claims that many of the badges worn by personnel during Dominic I were defectively sealed, which purportedly resulted in damage to the films from moisture, light and heat. Film damage typically caused optical density (darkening) in addition to that from nuclear radiation, which was, nonetheless, historically attributed to radiation. A 1979–1980 reevaluation of 1,349 Dominic I film badges showed that 45 percent exhibited some damage related to light, heat, and age, due to defective wax seals. Of the badges that had apparent readings over 0.4 rem, 98 percent were observed to have had suffered environmental damage. Subsequent research [Editor's Note: "subsequent research" is government doublespeak for statistics that have been altered ex post facto] of radiological data from Dominic I indicates that only the following categories of participants had the potential for radiation exposure:

    ♦ Crewmembers of SIOUX.
    ♦ Nuclear cloud sampler aircrews or associated ground crewmembers.
    ♦ Personnel involved in the recovery and handling of radioactive instrumented pods, rocket noses cones, or any other contaminated material.
    ♦ Radiation Safety monitors.



    Text from http://www.fdungan.com/duke.htm

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    Post 2.11.1896: Worlds first car insurance in the UK

    For the amount of 2 Pounds car owners could sign a car insurance at the Londoner "General Accident Corporation" for all accidents exept one.

    The insurance had an exception. The insurance didn't assure accidents with scared horses. And that happened a lot after the first cars came on the street.

    Text from DW-Welt.de: http://www.kalenderblatt.de/index.ph...sset=1&lang=de

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