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Thread: This Day in History

  1. #181
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    Unhappy 2.11.1988: First computer worm on the Internet

    The Morris worm or Internet worm was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet; it is considered the first worm and was certainly the first to gain significant mainstream media attention. It was written by a student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988 from MIT. The worm was released from MIT to disguise the fact that the worm originally came from Cornell. (Incidentally, Robert Tappan Morris is now an associate professor at MIT.)

    Architecture of the worm
    According to its creator, the Morris worm was not written to cause damage, but to gauge the size of the Internet. An unintended consequence of the code, however, caused it to be more damaging: a computer could be infected multiple times and each additional process would slow the machine down to the point of being unusable. The Morris worm worked by exploiting known vulnerabilities in Unix sendmail, Finger, rsh/rexec and weak passwords. The main body of the worm could only infect DEC VAX machines running BSD 4, and Sun 3 systems. A portable C "grappling hook" component of the worm was used to pull over the main body, and the grappling hook could run on other systems, loading them down and making them peripheral victims.

    The mistake
    The critical error that transformed the worm from a potentially harmless intellectual exercise into a virulent denial of service attack was in the spreading mechanism. The worm could have determined whether or not to invade a new computer by asking if there was already a copy running. But just doing this would have made it trivially easy to kill; everyone could just run a process that would answer "yes" when asked if there was already a copy, and the worm would stay away. The defense against this was inspired by Michael Rabin's mantra, "Randomization." To compensate for this possibility, Morris directed the worm to copy itself if the response is "yes", consecutively 7 times. This level of replication proved excessive and the worm spread rapidly, infecting some computers multiple times. Rabin remarked when he heard of the mistake, that he "should have tried it on a simulator first."

    Effects of the worm
    It is usually reported that around 6,000 major Unix machines were infected by the Morris worm. Paul Graham has claimed that

    "I was there when this statistic was cooked up, and this was the recipe: someone guessed that there were about 60,000 computers attached to the Internet, and that the worm might have infected ten percent of them."

    The U.S. GAO put the cost of the damage at $10M–100M.

    Gene Spafford created the Phage mailing list to coordinate a response to the emergency.

    Robert Morris was tried and convicted of violating the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. After appeals he was sentenced to three years probation, 400 hours of community service, and a fine of $10,050.

    The Morris worm has sometimes been referred to as the "Great Worm", because of the devastating effect it had upon the Internet at that time, both in overall system downtime and in psychological impact on the perception of security and reliability of the Internet. The name derives from the "Great Worms" of Tolkien: Scatha and Glaurung.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Tappan_Morris

    (Text from Wikipedia)
    Last edited by Captain Hornblower; 11-02-2007 at 06:47 PM. Reason: Headline format fixed

  2. #182
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    Post 05.11.1605: The gunpowder plot, Guy Fawkes

    The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, or the Powder Treason, as it was known at the time, was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening on 15 November 1605 (5 November 1605 in the Julian Calendar). The conspirators had also planned to abduct the royal children, not present in Parliament, and incite a revolt in the Midlands.

    The Gunpowder Plot was one of many unsuccessful assassination attempts against James I, and followed the Main Plot and Bye Plot of 1603. Some popular historians have put forward a debate about government involvement in the plot.

    On 5 November each year, people in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries and regions celebrate the failure of the plot on what is known as Guy Fawkes Night, Bonfire Night, Fireworks Night, Cracker Night or Plot Night; although the political meaning of the festival has grown to be very much secondary today.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunpowder_Plot

  3. #183
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    Post 05.11.1940: Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt elected for the 3rd time

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. A central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war, he has consistently been ranked as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents in scholarly surveys.

    Roosevelt won four presidential elections in a row, causing a realignment that political scientists call the Fifth Party System. His aggressive use of an active federal government re-energized the Democratic Party, creating a New Deal Coalition which dominated American politics until the late 1960s. He and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, remain touchstones for modern American liberalism. Conservatives vehemently fought back, but Roosevelt usually prevailed until he tried to pack the Supreme Court in 1937. Thereafter, the new Conservative coalition successfully ended New Deal expansion; during the war it closed most relief programs like the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps, arguing that unemployment had disappeared.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Delano_Roosevelt

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    Post 05.11.1970: Christmas seal designed by Princess Margrethe (Queen Margrethe II)

    On this day the annual Christmas Seal came on sale i Denmark. It was designed by Princess Margrethe, today Queen Margrethe II of Denmark. It was called Himmelborgen, Heavens Fort, with 50 differnt angels in white with golden wings.



    In 1904, Einar Holbøll, a Danish postal clerk developed the idea of a seal on envelopes during Christmas to raise money for tuberculosis. The plan was approved by the Postmaster and the King of Denmark, and the first seal bore the likeness of the Queen and the word Julen (Christmas). Over 4 million were sold in the first year.



    The Christmas Seals were introduced to the United States by Emily Bissell in 1907, after she had read about the program in an article by Danish-born Jacob Riis, a muckraking journalist and photographer. Bissell hoped to raise money for a sanitarium on the Brandywine River in Delaware.

    It grew to a national program in 1908 by the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (NASPT) and the American National Red Cross. The seals were sold at post offices, initially in Delaware at 1 cent each. Net proceeds from the sales would be divided equally between the two organizations. By 1920, the Red Cross withdrew from the arrangement and sales were conducted exclusively by the NASPT, then known as the National Tuberculosis Association (NTA). To reflect the expanding scope of the organization's goals, the name was changed to the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association in the late 1960's. The NTRDA became the American Lung Association in 1973, though the 1974 seals continue to show the NTRDA inscription on the sheet margin.

    Today the Christmas Seals benefit the American Lung Association and other lung related issues. Tuberculosis was declining, but recently has been on the rise. TB is still the most common major infectious disease in the world.

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    Smile 07.11.1963: Miracle of Lengede, 11 miners rescued.

    On November 7, 1963, 11 German miners were rescued from a collapsed mine after surviving for 14 days, an event that became subsequently known as the Wunder von Lengede ("miracle of Lengede") and attracted worldwide media attention.

    The miners were initially trapped in the Alte Mann, an abandoned tunnel in the ore mine Lengede-Broistedt, near Salzgitter, on October 24, 1963, after half a million m³ of mud water from Klärteich 12 had flooded the mine and the tunnels between the 60 and 100 m levels; out of 129 workers, 79 managed to rescue themselves during the first few hours, and although it first seemed as if there was no hope left for the other 50, one of the biggest and most dramatic rescue missions in the history of mining began after 7 more miners were found 23 hours after the catastrophe.

    The efforts paid off; three more workers were found alive on November 1, and two days later, contact could be established with another group of 11. After a few more days of drilling, this group was also brought to safety again on November 7, after being trapped for two weeks; the remaining 29 workers died.

    The disaster attracted considerable media attention; Chancellor Ludwig Erhard personally visited the mining site, and almost 460 journalists were present when the last miners were rescued. In 2003, a television film titled "Das Wunder von Lengede" in two parts was produced by German TV station Sat.1, written by Benedikt Röskau based on the memories of one of the rescued miners.

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    Unhappy 07.11.1983: United States Senate bombing

    The 1983 U.S. Senate bombing was a bomb explosion at the United States Senate on November 7, 1983.

    On the Monday of November 7, the Senate adjourned at 7:02 p.m. A crowded reception, held near the Senate Chamber, broke up two hours later. At 10:58 p.m. an explosion tore through the second floor of the Capitol’s north wing, the adjacent halls were virtually deserted.

    Minutes before the blast, a caller claiming to represent the "Armed Resistance Unit" had warned the Capitol switchboard that a bomb had been placed near the Chamber in retaliation for recent U.S. military involvement in Grenada and Lebanon.

    The force of the device, hidden under a bench at the eastern end of the corridor outside the Chamber, blew off the door to the office of Democratic Leader Robert C. Byrd. The blast also punched a hole in a wall partition sending a shower of pulverized brick, plaster, and glass into the Republican cloakroom. Although the explosion caused no structural damage to the Capitol, it shattered mirrors, chandeliers, and furniture. Officials calculated damages of $250,000.

    A portrait of Daniel Webster, located across from the concealed bomb, received the explosion’s full force. The blast tore away Webster’s face and left it scattered across the Minton tiles in one-inch canvas shards. Senate curator James Ketchum rescued the fragments from debris-filled trash bins. Over the coming months, a conservator painstakingly restored the painting to a credible, if somewhat diminished, version of the original.

    Following a five-year investigation, federal agents arrested six members of the Resistance Conspiracy in May 1988 and charged them with bombings of the Capitol, Ft. McNair, and the Washington Navy Yard. In 1990, a federal judge sentenced Marilyn Buck, Laura Whitehorn, and Linda Evans to lengthy prison terms for conspiracy and malicious destruction of government property. The court dropped charges against three co-defendants, already serving extended prison sentences for related crimes. (Whitehorn and Evans have since been released.)

    The 1983 bombing marked the beginning of tightened security measures throughout the Capitol. The area outside the Senate Chamber, previously open to the public, was permanently closed. Congressional officials instituted a system of staff identification cards and added metal detectors to building entrances to supplement those placed at Chamber gallery.

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    Post 07.11.1990: First female President elected in Ireland

    Mary Robinson, (born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. She first rose to prominence as an academic, barrister, campaigner and member of the Irish senate (1969–1989). She defeated Fianna Fáil's Brian Lenihan and Fine Gael's Austin Currie in the 1990 presidential election becoming, as an Independent candidate nominated by the Labour Party, the Workers' Party of Ireland and independent senators, the first elected president in the office's history not to have the support of Fianna Fáil.

    She is credited by many as having revitalised and liberalised a previously conservative political office. She resigned the presidency four months ahead of the end of her term of office to take up her post in the United Nations. Robinson has been Honorary President of Oxfam International since 2002, she is Chair of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and is also a founding member and Chair of the Council of Women World Leaders. Robinson is also one of the European members of the controversial Trilateral Commission.

    She serves on many boards including the GAVI Fund. Robinson’s newest project is Realizing Rights: the Ethical Globalization Initiative, which promotes equitable trade and development, more humane migration policies and better responses to HIV/AIDS in Africa. The organization also promotes women's leadership and supports capacity building and good governance in developing countries. Since 2004, she has also been Professor of Practice in International Affairs at Columbia University, where she teaches international human rights. Robinson also visits other colleges and universities where she lectures on human rights.

    In 2004, she received Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for her work in promoting human rights.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Robinson

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    Default 07.11.1845: Danish India colonies sold to United Kingdom

    The danish colonies of Tranquebar and the villages Serampore, Achne og Pirapur were sold to the British East-India Company for the amount of 1.125.000 Rigsdaler (danish currency at that time).

    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile211...h-overlay).htm

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    Post 07.11.1940:The Tacoma Narrow Bridge collapse

    On November 7, 1940, at approximately 11:00 AM, the first Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge collapsed due to wind-induced vibrations. Situated on the Tacoma Narrows in Puget Sound, near the city of Tacoma, Washington, the bridge had only been open for traffic since july 1st. 1940.

    The new bridg was build in two steps. First bridge was opened in 1950, and a parallel bridge opened in 2007.



    Video of the collapse:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:T...estruction.ogg

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge
    Last edited by sladys; 11-07-2007 at 10:48 PM.

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    Post 07.11.1874: First important use of an elephant as symbol for the US Republican Party

    A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party.

    Thomas Nasts Republican elephant


    United States Republican Party logo.

  11. #191
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    Post 07.11.1520: Begin of The bloodbath of Stockholm

    The Stockholm Bloodbath, or the Stockholm Massacre, took place as the result of a successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces under the command of Christian II of Denmark (in Swedish history known as "Christian the Tyrant"). The bloodbath itself is a series of events taking place between November 7 and November 10 in 1520, culminating on the 8th, when around 100 people (mostly nobility and clergy supporting the Sture party) were executed, despite a promise by Christian for general amnesty.

    The 'Stockholm Bloodbath' precipitated a lengthy hostility towards Danes in Sweden, and thenceforth the two nations were at almost continuous hostility with each other (each with the objective of conquest or revenge upon the other). These hostilities lasted for nearly three hundred years. Memory of the Bloodbath served to let Swedes depict themselves (and often, actually regard themseves) as the wronged and aggrieved party, even when they were eventually the ones who had political and military victories such as the conquest and annexation of Scania.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockholm_Bloodbath

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    Unhappy 9.11.1938: Begin of the Reichskristallnacht in Nazi-Germany

    Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938.

    Jewish homes were ransacked in numerous German cities along with 8,000 Jewish shops, towns and villages, as civilians and both the SA (Sturmabteilung) and the SS (Schutzstaffel) destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets covered in smashed windows — the origin of the name "Night of Broken Glass." Jews were beaten to death; 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps; and 1,668 synagogues ransacked with 267 set on fire.

    The Times of London wrote of the violence: "no foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kristallnacht

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    Post 9.11.1918: Germany becomes republic

    Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Revolution

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    Post 9.11.1872: The Great Boston Fire of 1872

    The Great Boston Fire of 1872 was Boston's largest urban fire and still one of the most costly fire-related property losses in American history. The conflagration began at 7:20 p.m. on November 9, 1872, in the basement of a commercial warehouse at 83—87 Summer Street in Boston, Massachusetts. The fire was finally contained twelve hours later, after it had consumed about 65 acres (263,000 m²) of Boston's downtown, 776 buildings, and much of the financial district and caused $73.5 million in damage. At least twenty people are known to have died in the fire.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Boston_Fire_of_1872

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    Post 9.11.1641: Maren Splid burned at a fire after witchtrial

    On November 9th 1641 Maren Splids was burned at a fire at the Gallows Hill near Ribe. Maren was one of the last and probably the most wellknown Danish victims for persecutions of witches.

    In Denmark the witch hunts began after the Reformation in 1536 and continued into the 17th century, where the plague and innumerable wars destroyed large parts of the country and left a great part of the population poor. The hard pressed people needed scapegoats.

    After the Reformation you could no longer buy yourself absolution from the Catholic Church. Instead you could argue you were bewitched to sin. In this way you could still be saved.

    Especially women – and especially the poor and elderly - were accused and convicted as witches. They had a hard time just to survive and often they had conflicts with their neighbours and fellow citizens. In such conflicts men would resort to physical violence, but women more often used verbal abuses against each other. They might threaten their opponents with all kinds of misfortunes, and if some of them came through – well then women were obvious targets for persecution as witches.

    Maren Splids was not a typical witch, because she was a wealthy and respected citizen in Ribe. She was married to the tailor Lauritz Spliid and was a successful landlady of the inn in Lauritz’ house in Sønderportsgade.


    Sign on hous the Splids lived. The sign says: Here lived tailor Laurids Splid whos poor wife Maren on november 9th 1641 was burned for witchcraft at the Gallowhills at Ribe.

    Maren was a selfassured lady and probably many thought she ought to be a little more modest and accommodating.

    In 1637 she was accused of being a witch by the tailor Didrik Skrædder. He might have been jealous of Lauritz Splids’ success in business and angry with his own incompetence. He claimed that three women had entered his house at night. Two of them he didn’t know, but the third was Maren. They had held him, and Maren had forced his mouth open and breathed into his throat. After that he had become ill and vomited. In the vomit was a strange lump of living matter. This lump of vomit became the most important proof against Maren. The lump of vomit was shown to all – also the supreme authority in Ribe – the feudal overlord Gregers Krabbe at Riberhus. The priests and bishop in Ribe were assembled and everyone believed that the lump could not be a natural phenomenon. A witch had to have had a hand in it.

    Maren was put on trial. At first Lauritz Splid succeeded in having the trial dismissed against his wife. But in 1639 Didrik had found some more witnesses and had approached King Christian the 4th himself. It so happened that the king himself was quite obsessed by witches, thinking they harmed him in both wars and as well as home. So Christian the 4th was directly responsible for having Maren put on trial again in Ribe.

    Maren Splids was found guilty. However shortly thereafter she was once more acquitted by another court in Ribe. Then the case was submitted to the Supreme Court of Denmark, where the King himself was judge. Christian the 4th imprisoned Maren in a tower in Copenhagen. Maren was then tortured until she confessed being a witch, although it is was prohibited to torture a prisoner before her being found guilty.

    Maren reported a number of other witches in her confessions, among them a cripple named Anne. The day after the sentence Maren Splids was burned as a witch at Galgebakken in Ribe. So many people watched her execution that the priest hardly could get through to her. She had had half a pint of beer and a load of gunpowder was tied to her back, so that her death would be hastened. After that she was tied to a ladder and thrown into the high flames.

    In the periode between 1572 and 1652 12 witch trials were conducted in Ribe. The last one was concerned Anna Bruds who was burned April 7th 1652.

    (From Ribe Tourist Service)

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