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Thread: This Day in History

  1. #241
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    Post 22.01.1901: Queen Victoria died after reigned 63 years and 7 month.

    Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. Her reign lasted 63 years and seven months, longer than that of any other British monarch. The period centred on her reign is known as the Victorian era.

    Though Victoria ascended the throne at a time when the United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy in which the king or queen held few political powers, she still served as a very important symbolic figure of her time. The Victorian era represented the height of the Industrial Revolution, a period of significant social, economic, and technological progress in the United Kingdom. Victoria's reign was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire; during this period it reached its zenith, becoming the foremost global power of the time.

    Victoria was the granddaughter of George III, and was a descendant of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victori...United_Kingdom

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    Default 22.01.1952: The first Jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, enters service.

    The de Havilland Comet developed and manufactured by de Havilland, first flew in 1949 and was the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. Considered a landmark British aeronautical design, after a successful introduction into commercial service, early Comet models suffered from catastrophic metal fatigue, causing a string of well-publicised accidents, The Comet was withdrawn temporarily and redesigned.

    The new Comet 4 series subsequently enjoyed a long and productive career of over 30 years, although sales never fully recovered. The Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, the military derivative of the Comet airliner, is still in service. In 2007, the original decades-old airframes were being rebuilt with new wings and engines to produce the Nimrod MRA 4, expected to serve with Britain's Royal Air Force until the 2020s, more than 70 years after the Comet's first flight.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Havilland_Comet

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    Post 23.01.1571: The Royal Exchange opens in London by Queen Elisabeth I.

    The Royal Exchange in the City of London was founded in 1565 by Sir Thomas Gresham to act as a centre of commerce for the city. The site was provided by the Corporation of London and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, and is roughly triangular, formed by the converging streets of Cornhill and Threadneedle Street. The design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp.

    The Royal Exchange was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth I who awarded the building its Royal title, on January 23, 1571.

    Gresham's original building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A second exchange was built on the site, designed by Edward Jerman, which opened in 1669, and which was destroyed by fire in January 1838.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_E...e_%28London%29

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    Default 23.01.1956: First motorway opened in Denmark.

    The Horsholm motorway, today called Helsingor-Motorvejen, was opened in a snowy day at the village Horsholm north of Copenhagen.

    300 guests were driven to the opening cenery but got stuck in the snow so they had to have help to get free of the snow.

    The opening ceremony was broadcasted in the radio.

    1926 it was decided to build the road but how it should be wasn't clear yet. First in 1938 the work began but had to stop because of the german occupation 1940-45. 1946 the work begain again.

    On the first day 4,140 cars and 302 motorcycles drove on the newly opened 12 km road.

    The Helsingor Motorway goes from Copenhagen to Helsingor, the E47.

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    Post 23.01.1973: Volcanic eruption on Heimaey, Iceland

    On 23 January 1973 at around one in the morning a volcanic eruption of the mountain Eldfell began on Heimaey. During the night the 5000 inhabitants of the island were evacuated, mostly by fishing boats, as almost the entire fishing fleet was in dock. The encroaching lava flow threatened to destroy the harbour that was the main source of livelihood for most of the town. However, by spraying the lava constantly with cold sea water some of it solidified and diverted the rest, saving the harbour from destruction. During the eruption, though, half of the town was crushed and the island grew a great deal.



    More images:
    http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/volc_i...y/heimaey.html
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    Default Jan 24, 1984 Apple Macintosh releases the first MAC

    1984 – The first Apple Macintosh, today known as the Macintosh 128K, went on sale, becoming the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command line interface.
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    Post 26.01.1936: Niagara Falls frozen

    Niagara Falls froze in this day to ice.

    But in fact, the falls never froze completely.

    From Answers.yahoo.com:
    The tremendous volume of water never stops flowing, However, the falling water and mist create ice formations along the banks of the falls and river.
    This can result in mounds of ice as thick as fifty feet. If the Winter is cold for long enough, the ice will completely stretch across the river and form what is known as the "ice bridge". This ice bridge can extend for several miles down river until it reaches the area known as the lower rapids.

    Until 1912,visitors were allowed to actually walk out on the ice bridge and view the Falls from below. February 24th of 1888 the local newspaper reported that at least 20,000 people watched or tobogganed on the ice. Shanties selling liquor, photographs and curiosities abounded. On February 4th 1912 the ice bridge broke up and three tourists lives were lost.

    There can also be a great deal of "mini-icebergs" which flow down the Niagara River from frozen Lake Erie. The flow of ice has been reduced
    considerably by the yearly installation of the "ice-boom" on Lake Erie. The ice-boom is a long floating chain (2miles- 3.2 KM) of steel floats strung across the Niagara River from Buffalo New York to Fort Erie Ontario.
    It is set in place during the month of December and removed during the month of March or April. It is maintained by the New York State Power Authority. The ice boom helps prevent the ice from clogging the river and most importantly the hydroelectric companies water intakes.

    HOWEVER.... The flow of water was stopped completely over both falls on March 29th 1848 due to an ice jam in the upper river for several hours. This is the only known time to have occurred. The Falls did not actually freeze over, but the flow was stopped to the point where people actually walked out and recovered artifacts from the riverbed!"

    Other reported years when Niagara Falls froze was 1848, 1883, 1896, 1904, 1909, 1911 and 1947.

    Photos from frozen Niagara Falls:


    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/in...=1006010401876

    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile108/Niagara-Falls.htm

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    Lightbulb 28.01.1958: The LEGO brick patended.

    After a 10 year development phase LEGO was patended worldwide. 1949 the known brick was introduced, it was without the today known tubes

    LEGO is a line of building toys manufactured by the LEGO Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark.

    The company's flagship product, commonly referred to as Lego bricks, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks and an accompanying array of gears, minifigures and various other parts. There are other Lego pieces which can be assembled and connected in many ways, such as vehicles, buildings and even working robots.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lego

    Even Google celebrated the day with their Google sign made of LEGO bricks.


    LEGO toy made of wood and the famous brick of today.
    Last edited by sladys; 01-28-2008 at 06:26 PM.

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    Default 03 Feb, 1959 - The Day The Music Died

    Buddy Holley, Ritchie Valens and J.P. Richardson (The Big Bopper) were killed in a plane wreck just outside of Clear Lake, Iowa.

    Waylon Jennings was supposed to be on the flight, but gave up his seat to Richardson since The Big Bopper had the flu.

    Band member Tommy Allsup was also scheduled to fly (the rest of the band was going by bus), but Ritchie Valens had never flown before and asked Allsup for his seat. They flipped a coin to decide who would get the last seat. Valens won the coin toss.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFOyLDe1nbw

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Day_the_Music_Died

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    Default 06.02.1958 - Manchester United Flight Disaster

    The Munich air disaster took place on 6 February 1958, when British European Airways Flight 609 crashed on its third attempt to take off from a slush-covered runway at the Munich-Riem airport in Munich, West Germany. On board the plane was the Manchester United football team, nicknamed the Busby Babes, along with a number of supporters and journalists. Twenty-three of the 44 passengers on board the aircraft died in the disaster.

    The flight was operated by British European Airways (BEA) as an "Elizabethan" class Airspeed Ambassador charter aircraft G-ALZU Lord Burghley.

    The European Cup had been contested since 1955, although no English club took part in the very first tournament on account of Football League rules. Manchester United entered the 1956-57 tournament and reached the semi-finals, being knocked out by eventual winners Real Madrid; they were thus one of the favourites for the 1957-58 tournament. Domestic league matches were played on Saturdays and European matches were played midweek, so although air travel was risky at the time, it was the only practical choice if United were to fulfil their league fixtures. Their team was known as the Busby Babes, a reference to their manager Matt Busby and to the average age of the players, which was unusually young.

    The club had chartered an aeroplane to fly them home from their European Cup match against the Yugoslavian team Crvena Zvezda (Red Star Belgrade), which ended in a 3-3 draw (United won the tie 5-4 on aggregate). The takeoff from Belgrade was delayed for an hour as the United player Johnny Berry had lost his passport, then the plane made a scheduled stop in Munich to refuel.

    Captain James Thain, the pilot, tried to take off twice, but both attempts were aborted due to engine surging. When a third take off was attempted, at 3:04 pm, the plane failed to gain adequate height and crashed into the fence surrounding the airport, then into a house, which was unoccupied at the time.

    Although the crash was originally blamed on pilot error, it was subsequently found to have been caused by the build-up of slush towards the ends of the runway, causing deceleration of the aircraft and preventing safe flying speed from being attained. During the take off, the aircraft had attained a speed of 117 kt (217 km/h) but on entering the slush speed dropped to 105 kt (194 km/h), too slow for flight, with not enough runway remaining to abort the take off. Aircraft with tail-wheel undercarriages had not been greatly affected by slush, due to the geometry of these undercarriages in relation to the aircraft's centre of gravity, but newer types, such as the Ambassador, with nose wheel landing-gear and the main wheels behind the centre of gravity, were found to be vulnerable. The accident resulted in the instigation of operating limits for the amount of slush build-up permitted on runways.

    Despite this conclusion, the German airport authorities (who were legally responsible for the state of the airport's runways, but generally not aware of the then unknown danger of slush on runways for aircraft like the Ambassador) took legal action against Captain Thain, who had survived the crash, claiming he had taken off without deicing the wings and that responsibility for the accident was his alone, despite several witnesses stating that this was not so. The basis of the German authorities' case relied on a photograph of the aircraft (published in several newspapers) taken shortly before take off, that appeared to show snow on the upper wing surfaces. When the original negative was examined, however, no snow or ice could be seen, the 'snow' having been due to the published pictures being produced from a copy negative. The witnesses were not called to the German inquiry and proceedings against Thain dragged on until 1968, when he was finally cleared of any responsibility for the crash. As the official cause, British authorities recorded a build-up of melting snow on the runway which prevented the Elizabethan from reaching the required take-off speed. Thain, having been dismissed by BEA shortly after the accident and never reengaged, retired and returned to run his poultry farm in Berkshire. He died of a heart attack at the age of 53, in 1975.

    Fatalities

    Manchester United players

    * Geoff Bent
    * Roger Byrne
    * Eddie Colman
    * Duncan Edwards (survived the crash but died in hospital 15 days later)
    * Mark Jones
    * David Pegg
    * Tommy Taylor
    * Liam 'Billy' Whelan

    Others

    * Walter Crickmer - Club Secretary
    * Bert Whalley - Chief Coach
    * Tom Curry - Trainer
    * Alf Clarke - journalist, Manchester Evening Chronicle
    * Don Davies - journalist, Manchester Guardian
    * George Follows - journalist, Daily Herald
    * Tom Jackson - journalist, Manchester Evening News
    * Archie Ledbrooke - journalist, Daily Mirror
    * Henry Rose - journalist, Daily Express
    * Eric Thompson - journalist, Daily Mail
    * Frank Swift - journalist, News of the World (also former England and Manchester City goalkeeper)
    * Captain Kenneth "Ken" Rayment - British co-pilot who survived the crash but suffered multiple injuries and died three weeks later as a result of brain damage. He was one of two people who died in hospital after being injured in the crash.
    * Bela Miklos - travel agent
    * Willie Satinoff - supporter, racecourse owner and close friend of Matt Busby
    * Tom Cable - steward

    Survivors

    Manchester United players
    * Johnny Berry (died in 1994)
    * Jackie Blanchflower (died in 1998)
    * Dennis Viollet (died in 1999)
    * Ray Wood (died in 2002)

    Still alive:

    * Bobby Charlton
    * Bill Foulkes
    * Harry Gregg
    * Kenny Morgans
    * Albert Scanlon

    Other survivors

    * Matt Busby - team manager (died in 1994)
    * Frank Taylor - journalist (died in 2002)
    * James Thain - captain (died in 1975)
    * George (Bill) Rodgers - radio officer (death date unknown)
    * Peter Howard - photographer (died in 1996)
    * Margaret Bellis - stewardess (died in 1990s)

    Still alive:

    * Ted Ellyard - photographer
    * Vera Lukić and baby daughter Venona - passengers saved by Manchester United player Harry Gregg. In addition, at the time of the accident, Vera Lukić was pregnant with her later-born son Zoran.[3]
    * Mrs Miklos - wife of Bela Miklos, the travel agent that arranged trip and died in the crash
    * Nebojsa Bato Tomašević - passenger

    A memorial was erected here

    Source: Wikipedia

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    Default 2/14/1989 First GPS satellites in orbit

    On this day in 1989 the first of 24 satellites of the Global Positioning System are placed into orbit

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Utilizing a constellation of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, the system enables a GPS receiver to determine its location, speed, direction, and time. Other similar systems are the Russian GLONASS (incomplete as of 2007), the upcoming European Galileo positioning system, the proposed COMPASS navigation system of China, and IRNSS of India.

    Developed by the United States Department of Defense, GPS is officially named NAVSTAR GPS (Contrary to popular belief, NAVSTAR is not an acronym, but simply a name given by John Walsh, a key decision maker when it came to the budget for the GPS program).[1] The satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. The cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$750 million per year,[2] including the replacement of aging satellites, and research and development.

    Following the shootdown of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making the system available for free for civilian use as a common good.[3] Since then, GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, and scientific uses. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks.
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    Default February 16, 1923 Tutankhamun tomb unsealed

    1923 – English archaeologist and Egyptologist Howard Carter unsealed the burial chamber of Tutankhamun (mummy mask pictured), an Egyptian Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty.



    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile209...utankhamun.htm
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    Unhappy 01.05.1978: First Spam e-mail sent

    E-mail spam, also known as "bulk e-mail" or "junk e-mail," is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. A common synonym for spam is unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. "UCE" refers specifically to "unsolicited commercial e-mail."

    E-mail spam slowly but exponentially grew for several decades to several billion messages a day. Spam has frustrated, confused, and annoyed e-mail users. Laws against spam have been sporadically implemented, with some being opt-out and others requiring opt in e-mail. The total volume of spam (over 100 billion emails per day as of April 2008) has leveled off slightly in recent years, and is no longer growing exponentially. The amount received by most e-mail users has decreased, mostly because of better filtering. About 80% of all spam is sent by fewer than 200 spammers. Botnets, networks of virus-infected computers, send about 80% of spam. The cost of spam is borne mostly by the recipient, so it is a form of postage due advertising.

    E-mail addresses are collected from chatrooms, websites, newsgroups, and viruses which harvest users' address books, and are sold to other spammers. Much of spam is sent to invalid e-mail addresses. ISPs have attempted to recover the cost of spam through lawsuits against spammers, although they have been mostly unsuccessful in collecting damages despite winning in court.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-mail_spam#Origin_of_spam

    First e-mail spam:
    http://thelongestlistofthelongeststu...m/first96.html

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    Default 26.06.1948 - Berlin airlift began

    On 24.06.1948 the Soviets started the blockade of Berlin after the Allies replaced the old crurrency (Reichsmark) by a new one. The Soviets felt interfered by their intention to occupy the whole Soviet zone (including Berlin) as their new satellite state.

    All roads and railway tracks were closed ("for repairs" or "technical difficulties"). The Western powers had never negotiated a pact with the Soviets guaranteeing these passage rights, just three air routes were still open. At the time, Berlin had thirty-five days' worth of food, and forty-five days' worth of coal. Militarily, the Americans and British were greatly outnumbered due to the post-war scaling-back of their armies, which the Soviets had resisted doing (for several reasons). If a war had started, the West would have certainly lost Berlin. General Lucius D. Clay, in charge of the U.S. occupation zone in Germany, summed up the reasons for not retreating in a cable to Washington, D.C. on June 13, 1948: "There is no practicability in maintaining our position in Berlin and it must not be evaluated on that basis... We are convinced that our remaining in Berlin is essential to our prestige in Germany and in Europe. Whether for good or bad, it has become a symbol of the American intent." Forcing this decision would require the airlift to actually work, however. If the supplies could not be flown in fast enough, Soviet help would eventually be needed in order to prevent starvation. Clay was told to take advice from General Curtis LeMay, commander of United States Air Forces in Europe, to see if an airlift was possible. LeMay replied "We can haul anything."

    On June 24, 1948, LeMay appointed Brigadier General Joseph Smith, commander of the Wiesbaden Military Post, as the Task Force Commander of the airlift. On June 25, 1948, Clay gave the order to launch Operation Vittles. The next day thirty-two C-47 cargo planes lifted off for Berlin hauling 80 tons of cargo including milk, flour, and medicine. The first British aircraft flew on June 28. At that time, the airlift was expected to last three weeks. By July 1 the system was starting to come into action. C-54s were starting to arrive in quantity, and the Rhein-Main Air Base was made exclusive C-54 depot, while Wiesbaden retained a mix of C-54s and C-47s. Aircraft flew east-northeast into Tempelhof Airport on one of the three air corridors, then returned due west flying out on a second. After reaching the British Zone, they turned south to return to their bases.

    The British ran a similar system, flying roughly south-southeast from a variety of airports in the Hamburg area into Gatow Airport in the British Sector, and then returning out on the same air corridor as the U.S., turning for home or landing at Hanover. On July 5, the Yorks and Dakotas were joined by ten Short Sunderlands and, later, by Short Hythe flying boats. Flying from Finkenwerder on the Elbe near Hamburg to the Havel river next to Gatow, their corrosion-resistant hulls lent them to the particular task of delivering table salt into the city. Alongside the British and U.S. personnel were aircrews from Australia,Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

    In order to accommodate the large number of flights, required maintenance schedules, and cargo loading times, Smith developed a complex schedule and pattern for arranging flights. Aircraft were scheduled to take off every three minutes, flying 500 feet higher than the previous flight. This pattern began at 5,000 feet and was repeated five times.

    The continued success of the Airlift humiliated the Soviets, and the Easter Parade was "the last straw". On April 25, 1949 the Russian news agency TASS reported a willingness by the Soviets to lift the blockade. The next day, the U.S. State Department stated the "way appears clear" for the blockade to end. Soon after, the four powers began serious negotiations, and a settlement was made on Allied terms. On May 4 the Allies announced that an agreement to end the blockade, in eight days, had been reached.

    The Soviet blockade Berlin was lifted at one minute after midnight, on May 12, 1949. A British convoy immediately drove through to Berlin, and the first train from the West reached Berlin at 5:32A.M.. Later that day, an enormous crowd celebrated the end of the blockade. General Clay, whose retirement had been announced by U.S. President Truman on May 3rd, was saluted by 11,000 U.S. soldiers and dozens of airplanes. Once home, Clay would receive a ticker-tape parade in New York City, get to address the U.S. Congress, and be honoured with a medal from Truman.

    Flights continued for some time, though, to build a comfortable surplus. By July 24, 1949 a three-month surplus was built-up, ensuring that the airlift could be re-started with ease if needed. The Berlin Airlift officially ended on September 30, 1949, after fifteen months. In total, the U.S.A. delivered 1,783,573 tons, while 541,937 tons were delivered by the RAF, totaling 2,326,406 tons of food and supplies on 278,228 total flights to Berlin. The C-47s and C-54s together flew over 92 million miles in the process, nearly the same distance as the earth is from the sun.

    A total of 101 fatalities were recorded as a result of the operation, including 39 Britons and 31 Americans, mostly due to crashes. Seventeen American and eight British aircraft crashed during the operation.

    The cost of the Airlift operations were approximately $224 million ($2 billion in inflation-adjusted 2008 dollars)

    Operation Little Vittles

    Gail Halvorsen, one of the many Airlift pilots, decided to use his offtime to fly into Berlin and make movies with his handheld camera. He arrived at Tempelhof on July 17 after hitching a ride on one of the C-54s, and walked over to a crowd of children who had gathered at the end of the runway to watch the planes coming in. He introduced himself and they started to ask him questions about the aircraft and their flights. As a goodwill gesture, he handed out his only two sticks of Wrigley's Doublemint Gum, and promised that if they did not fight over them, the next time he returned he would drop off more. The children quickly divided up the pieces as best they could. Before he left them, a child asked him how they would know it was him flying over, and he replied, "I'll wiggle my wings." The very next day, on approach to Berlin, he rocked the airplane and dropped some chocolate bars attached to a handkerchief parachute to the children waiting below. Every day after that the number of children would increase and he made several more drops. Soon there was a stack of mail in Base Ops addressed to "Uncle Wiggly Wings", "The Chocolate Uncle" and "The Chocolate Flier". His commanding officer was upset when the story appeared in the news, but when Tunner heard about it he thought it was great and immediately christened it "Operation Little Vittles". Other pilots joined the fun, and when news reached the U.S., children all over the country sent in their own candy to help out. Soon the major candy companies joined in as well. In the end, over three tons of candy were dropped over Berlin, and the "operation" became a major propaganda success. The candy-dropping aircraft were quickly christened "Rosinenbomber" (raisin bombers) by the German children.




    Just three years ago a bloody war ended. A war started in Germany with Berlin as its capitol. Many millions of casualties - fathers, sons, brothers, mothers, daughters and sisters. And suddenly the world had to fear another thread - the Soviet dictatorship. And suddenly a city became a symbol the free world, the same city where the war started 3 years ago. The victors had to feed the former enemy in an outstanding operation. Like an incredible conveyor belt many pilots risked their life to fly to Berlin; not to drop bombs like 3 years ago. They hauled food, coal, good of needs - they hauled life. Those brave man kept a whole city alive; and some of them lost theirs.

    And one day one of those pilots, First Lieutenant Gail Halvorsen, started to drop candy where a few years ago bombs where dropped - and made children happy in a world of ruins. Others followed. Unbelievable: former enemies became friends, a friendship that still lasts!

    In memory of the brave pilots who risked their lifes and those who lost it...

    Software is like entropy. It is difficult to grasp, weighs nothing, and obeys the second law of thermodynamics; i.e., it always increases.
    Norman R. Augustine

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    Default 26.06.1963 - "Ich bin ein Berliner"

    "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a Berliner") is a quotation from a June 26, 1963 speech by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Bonn. He was underlining the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after the Soviet-supported Communist state of East Germany erected the Berlin Wall as a barrier to prevent movement between East and West.

    The speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, and a notable moment of the Cold War. It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an enclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation. Speaking from the balcony of Rathaus Schöneberg, Kennedy said,

    Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was civis Romanus sum [I am a Roman citizen]. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is 'Ich bin ein Berliner'… All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner!'

    Kennedy came up with the phrase at the last moment, as well as the idea to say it in German. Kennedy asked his interpreter Robert H. Lochner to translate "I am a Berliner" only as they walked up the stairs at the Rathaus (City Hall). With Lochner's help, Kennedy practiced the phrase in the office of then-Mayor Willy Brandt, and in his own hand made a cue card with phonetic spelling.



    According to Lochner, Kennedy's National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy felt the speech had gone "a little too far", and the two revised the text for a softer stance before repeating the speech at the Free University later that day.

    This message of defiance was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners, and was a clear statement of U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. However, Kennedy was criticized for making a speech that acknowledged Berlin's status quo as reality.

    No 5 month later Kennedy was shot.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ich_bin_ein_Berliner

    Software is like entropy. It is difficult to grasp, weighs nothing, and obeys the second law of thermodynamics; i.e., it always increases.
    Norman R. Augustine

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