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Thread: This Day in History

  1. #46
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    Default 04.08.1944 - Anne Frank arrested

    On 04.08.1944, Anne Frank, known for her diary written while hiding during German occupation, and her family were arrested by Germans following a tip-off from an informer who was never identified.

    The members of the household were taken to the Gestapo headquarters where they were interrogated and held overnight. On 05.08., they were transferred to the Huis van Bewaring (House of Detention), an overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans. Two days later the eight Jewish prisoners were transported to Westerbork, The Netherlands. Ostensibly a transit camp, by this time more than 100,000 Jews had passed through it. Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and were sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labor.

    On 03.09., the group was deported on what would be the last transport from Westerbork to the Auschwitz concentration camp. They arrived after a three days' journey, and were separated by gender, with the men and women never to see each other again. Of the 1019 passengers, 549 people-–including all children under the age of fifteen years-–were selected and sent directly to the gas chambers where they were killed. Anne had turned fifteen three months earlier and was spared, and although everyone from the Achterhuis survived this selection, Anne believed her father had been killed.

    On 28.10., selections began for women to be relocated to Bergen-Belsen. More than 8,000 women, including Anne and Margot Frank and Auguste van Pels, were transported, but Edith Frank was left behind. Tents were erected to accommodate the influx of prisoners, Anne and Margot among them, and as the population rose, the death toll due to disease increased rapidly. Anne was briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar (nicknamed "Lies" in the diary) and Nanette Blitz, both of whom survived the war. Blitz described her as bald, emaciated and shivering. Goslar said that although Anne was ill herself, she told her that she was more concerned about Margot, whose illness seemed to be more severe and who remained in her bunk, too weak to walk. Anne told both her close friends that she believed her parents were dead.

    In March 1945, a typhus epidemic spread through the camp killing an estimated 17,000 prisoners. Witnesses later testified that Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock, and that a few days later Anne was dead too, at the age of 15. They estimated that this occurred a few weeks before the camp was liberated by British troops on 15.04.1945, although the exact dates were not recorded. The camp, after liberation, had to be burned due to the epidemic, and Anne and Margot were buried in a mass grave, the exact whereabouts of which are unknown.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Frank
    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile172...etherlands.htm
    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile212...Westerbork.htm
    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile179...en-Overlay.htm

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    Default 05.08.1962 - Marilyn Monroe found death

    Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on 01.06.1926), a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, model and pop icon, was found dead in her house in Brentwood by her housekeeper. Her death was ruled as an overdose of sleeping pills. Questions remain about the circumstances and timeline of housekeeper Eunice Murray's discovery of Monroe's body. Also, some conspiracy theories involve John and Robert Kennedy. The official cause of her death was "probable suicide".

    On 08.08.1962, Marilyn was interred in a crypt at Corridor of Memories, #24, at the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles, California. Lee Strasberg delivered the eulogy.

    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile837...nroe-Crypt.htm
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    Default 05.08.1583 - St. John's became the first colony of the British Empire

    On 05.08.1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed the area as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I. At the time, he found 16 English ships with 20 French and Portuguese vessels using the harbour. There was no permanent population, however, and Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, thereby ending any immediate plans of settlement. The Newfoundland National War Memorial is located on the waterfront in St. John's, at the purported site of Gilbert's landing and proclamation. The first permanent European settlers arrived at St. John's in 1605.
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    Default 05.08.2003 - Jakarta Marriott bombing

    On 05.08.2003, a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb outside the lobby of the JW Marriott Hotel, killing twelve people and injuring 150. All those killed were Indonesian with the exception of one Dutch businessman. The hotel was viewed as a Western symbol, and had been used by the United States embassy for various events. The hotel was closed for five weeks and reopened to the public on 8 September.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003_Ma..._Hotel_bombing
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    Default 06.08.1945 - First Atomic Bomb Drop Hiroshima

    Following prolonged strategic bombing of Japan during World War II, first combat use of a nuclear weapon was conducted by the United States. A B-29 bomber dropped a single Mk-I "Little Boy" atomic bomb over Hiroshima, estimated population 285,000. The Mk-I was a gun-type nuclear gravity bomb using highly enriched uranium. It detonated 580 meters over central Hiroshima at 8:15 AM local time with a yield estimated at 15 kilotons. The airburst height was selected to maximize the extent of prompt effects and to minimize residual radiation (fallout). Individuals at ground zero received combined gamma and neutron doses of perhaps 80,000 rad, although flash and blast would have been immediately fatal. The thermal flash produced fires which merged into a firestorm, razing much of the city. Flash, blast, and prompt radiation killed most people within 1.5 km of ground zero; immediate fatalities were generally from flash and blast injuries, with many otherwise injured and uninjured dying of fatal prompt radiation doses over the following weeks and months. Small numbers of people were injured by residual radiations (neutron-induced radioactivity and residual material from the weapon).

    On the day of the bombing, an estimated 348,000 people were in Hiroshima, including 265,000 Japanese residents, 20,000 Korean residents, 12,000 conscripted Japanese workers, 3,000 conscripted Korean workers, 48,000 Japanese soldiers, and a small number of prisoners of war. Casualty figures are uncertain, despite many surveys (some figures presented here are extrapolated from partial surveys). Among civilians, possibly 44,000 to 59,000 were killed the day of the bombing, with another 17,000 missing. Subsequent deaths include about 25,000 through the end of August 1945, 9,000 in September 1945, 2,000 in October-December 1945, and 2,500 in 1946. Many of these subsequent deaths involved radiation injuries. Deaths among survivors after 1946 include greater fractions from natural causes. Less information is available regarding military fatalites, but at least 9,000 soldiers died through the end of 1946. The estimated 130,000 fatalities to 1950 include about 111,000 Japanese civilians, 12,000 Japanese soldiers, and 6,500 Koreans. After 1950, deaths attributed to radiation include about 60 leukaemia deaths, 300 other cancer deaths, and 145 non-cancer deaths. New cases of leukaemia peaked in 1951.

    Those injured in the bombing numbered (through August 1946) 30,500 severely injured and 48,600 slightly injured. These figures do not include a possible 7,000 injuries among military personnel. Of 2,160 medical personnel in Hiroshima at the time of the bombing, 1,980 were killed or injured. Emergency response was supported by the arrival of about 3,270 medical personnel from surrounding areas and other parts of Japan, along with another 2,910 relief workers. An additional 40,000 to 60,000 are registered as having entered Hiroshima shortly after the bombing. Survivor registries include 2,300 individuals exposed in utero. Studies suggest that excess miscarriages and fetal deaths numbered in the dozens, and excess infant deaths (for those exposed in utero) also in the dozens. About 45 cases of microcephaly are known among those exposed in utero, including at least 15 with mental retardation.

    Portions of Hiroshima with little or no damage were continuously inhabited, and the city was rebuilt. Hiroshima reattained its pre-attack population by 1954 and had a population of 1,066,000 in 1992.

    Consequences: Estimated 130,000 fatalities (of which perhaps 40,000 are related to ionizing radiation injuries) and 86,000 injuries.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_...a_and_Nagasaki
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    Default 06.08.1932 - Germanys first Autobahn opened

    On 06.08.1932, the major of the City of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer (later he became the first Bundeskanzler of the Federal Republic of Germany), opended Germanys first Autobahn.

    The 18 km long track connects the cities Cologne and Bonn has the number A555. It was built from 1929 till 1932.
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    Default 06.08.1890 - First execution by the electric chair at Auburn Prison

    On August 6, 1890, the first execution by the electric chair was carried out at Auburn Prison. Inmate William Kemmler, sentenced to death for murdering his wife Matilda Ziegler.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auburn%2C_New_York
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auburn_Prison
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kemmler
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    Software is like entropy. It is difficult to grasp, weighs nothing, and obeys the second law of thermodynamics; i.e., it always increases.
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    Default 06.08.1893 - Corinth Canal opened

    The Corinth Canal is a canal connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. It cuts through the Isthmus of Corinth and separates the Peloponnesian peninsula from the Greek mainland and therefore effectively making the former an island.

    http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile1134/Corinth-Canal.htm

    Software is like entropy. It is difficult to grasp, weighs nothing, and obeys the second law of thermodynamics; i.e., it always increases.
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    Default 07.08.1933 - The Iraqi Government slaughtered over 3,000 Assyrians in Sumail

    The Assyrian people who resided in Sumail and its neighbouring area were subjected to a massacre on 07.08.1933, implemented by the Iraqi government. The massacre was the first genocide in Iraq's young history after the establishment of the new Iraqi state in 1921. Close to 3,000 Assyrians died during the 1933 massacre, most of them in the village of Sumail. Thousands were forced to flee to Syria where they currently live in 33 villages of the Khabur area, in the Al Jazeera region.

    August 7 officially became known as Martyrs Day or National Day of Mourning by the Assyrian community in memory for the Simele massacre, as it was declared so by the Assyrian Universal Alliance in 1970.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1933_Massacre_of_Sumail
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    Software is like entropy. It is difficult to grasp, weighs nothing, and obeys the second law of thermodynamics; i.e., it always increases.
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    Default 07.08.1978 - United States President Carter declares federal emergency at Love Canal

    Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, United States of America (USA). It officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue.

    In 1920, Love's land was sold in public auction to the City of Niagara Falls, who used the undeveloped area as a landfill for chemical waste disposal. At the time, the canal was an ideal site for this purpose; the ground was largely impermeable clay, and the surrounding area was sparsely populated.

    In 1942, Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation (which became a subsidiary of Occidental Petroleum in 1968) expanded use of the site, and, by 1947, acquired the land for private use. In the subsequent five year period, the company buried about 22,000 tons of toxic waste in the area. Once the site had been filled to capacity in 1952, Hooker closed the site, back-filled the canal, and covered it over with four feet of clay.

    At the time of the closure, Niagara Falls' population had begun to expand. The local school board was desperate for land, and attempted to purchase an area of expensive property from Hooker Chemical that had not yet been used to bury toxic waste. The corporation refused to sell on the grounds of safety, and took members of the school board to the canal and drilled several bore holes through the clay, showing that there were toxic chemicals below the surface, however the board refused to capitulate. Eventually, faced with the property being condemned and/or expropriated, Hooker Chemical agreed to sell on the condition that the board buy the entire property for a dollar.

    Shortly thereafter, the board began construction on the 99th Street School in its originally intended location. However, the building site was forced to relocate when contractors unearthed two pits filled with chemicals. The new location was directly on top of the former landfill, and during construction, contractors broke through the clay seal that Hooker had installed to contain the chemical waste.

    In 1957, the City of Niagara Falls constructed sewers for a mixture of low-income and single family residences to be built on lands adjacent to the landfill site. During construction of the gravel sewer beds, the clay seal was broken again, the walls of the canal were breached, and chemicals seeped from the canal. The construction of the LaSalle Expressway restricted groundwater from flowing to the Niagara River. Following the wet winter and spring of 1977, the elevated expressway turned the breached canal into an overflowing pool.

    In 1978, Lois Gibbs, a local mother and president of the Love Canal Homeowners' Association, began to wonder if her children's recurring epilepsy, asthma, and urinary tract infections[4] were connected to their exposure to leaking chemical waste. Gibbs later discovered that her neighborhood sat on top of 21,000 tons of buried chemical waste, the now infamous Love Canal.

    In the following years, Gibbs led an effort to investigate community concerns about the health of its residents; she and other residents made repeated complaints of strange odors and "substances" that surfaced in their yards. City officials were brought to investigate the area, but did not act to solve the problem.

    The lack of public interest in Love Canal made matters worse for the homeowners' association, which now battled two organizations spending vast amounts of money to disprove negligence. Initially, members of the organization had been frustrated by the lack of a public entity that could advise and defend them. Gibbs met with considerable public resistance to attempts to organize the community, and the mostly middle-class families did not have the resources to protect themselves, and many did not see any alternative other than abandoning their homes at a loss.

    By 1978, Love Canal had become a national media event with articles referring to the neighborhood as "a public health time bomb," and "one of the most appalling environmental tragedies in American history."

    On August 7, 1978, United States President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at Love Canal, and those living closest to the site were relocated.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Canal
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    Software is like entropy. It is difficult to grasp, weighs nothing, and obeys the second law of thermodynamics; i.e., it always increases.
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    Default 07.08.1926: First Grand Prix race in the UK

    The first british Grand Prix was held at Brooklands Airfield. It was opened on june 7. 1907 and the races stopped after WW II because the cars were too fast for this track.

    This first British Grand Prix was won by Louis Wagner and Robert Senechal driving a Delage 155B.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brooklands

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delage
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    Default 07.08.1858: Ottawa is canadian capital

    Queen Victoria declares Ottawa as canadian capital. Became Capital of the new Dominion of Canada in 1867. Designated 1976.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottawa
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    Default 08.08.1786: Mont Blanc climbed for the first time.

    Jacques Balmat and doctor Michel Paccard were the first who succeded to climb up the Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in western Europe and the Alps on the border of France and Italy.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mont_Blanc
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    Last edited by sladys; 08-07-2007 at 11:32 PM.

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    Default 08.08.1900: First Davis Cup tennis tournament

    In 1900 Dwight Davis, then a fourth-year student of nearby Harvard University, arranged for a British team visit Longwood and compete for what became the first Davis Cup tie, branded the International Lawn Tennis Challenge. The Davis-captained Americans won the inaugural contest 3-0.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longwood_Cricket_Club

    http://www.daviscup.com/
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    Default 08.08.1974: President Nixon resign after Watergate scandal

    President Nixon announced in a live broadcast that he resign as Presiden of the USA after the Watergate Scandal. Gerald Ford took over office as new US President.

    On June 17, 1972, Frank Wills, a security guard at the Watergate Complex, noticed tape covering the locks on several doors in the complex. He called the police and within minutes, five men were arrested inside the Democratic National Committee's office. The five men were Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James W. McCord, Jr., Eugenio Martínez and Frank Sturgis. The five were charged with attempted burglary and attempted interception of telephone and other communications. On September 15, a grand jury indicted them and two other men for conspiracy, burglary and violation of federal wiretapping laws. The two others were: E. Howard Hunt, Jr. and Gordon Liddy. In March 1973, James McCord wrote a letter to Judge John J. Sirica charging a massive cover up of the burglary. His letter transformed the affair into a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude.

    The connection between the break-in and the President's re-election campaign fundraising committee was highlighted by its media coverage. In particular, investigative coverage by The Washington Post and The New York Times fueled focus on the event. The coverage dramatically increased the profile of the crime and consequent political stakes. Fed tips by an anonymous source (W. Mark Felt) they would later identify only by the code name "Deep Throat," Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered information suggesting that knowledge of the break-in and attempts to cover it up led deep into the Justice Department, the FBI, the CIA, and even the White House itself. Rather than ending with the trial and conviction of the burglars, the investigations grew broader; a Senate committee chaired by Senator Sam Ervin was set up to examine Watergate and started to subpoena White House staff.

    On April 30, 1973, Nixon was forced to ask for the resignation of two of his most influential aides, H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, both of whom would soon be indicted and ultimately go to prison. He also fired White House Counsel John Dean, who had just testified before the Senate and would go on to become the key witness against the President.

    On the same day, Nixon appointed a new Attorney General, Elliot Richardson, and gave him authority to designate, for the growing Watergate inquiry, a special counsel who would be independent of the regular Justice Department hierarchy, to preserve his independence. On May 19, 1973, Richardson named Archibald Cox to the position. Televised hearings had begun two days before.

    1976 the famous movie "All the President's Men" starring Robert Redford as Woodward and Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein was made telling the story of this case.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watergate_scandal

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