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Thread: A Call for Help - Flight Sim

  1. #1
    ṨῤἵḋểṙẊƻƻ SpiderX22's Avatar
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    Default A Call for Help - Flight Sim

    Hello,

    So, for both educational reasons and because I want to, I've decided to see if I can modify the built in Google Earth flight simulator and make it more submarine-like (since you can now fly underwater). I would slow it down dramatically (40 knots top speed?) and would have to change all the settings in the .acf file as well. My professor as well is interested in something like this, he wants to modify the flight simulator into a hang gliding simulator. However, we have both run into the same problem, modifying the file....or more...how to. Nowhere online is there a guide, and I'm quite clueless as to what half the things in the .acf file even do. I've experimented a bit, but half the time the changes aren't noticeable, or the program glitches out and crashes.

    (physical hang glider sim: http://engineering.tufts.edu/1181647...309638170.html)

    So, I'm calling out for help..if anyone knows how to modify the .acf file and what the different things within it really mean, please help me/post a tutorial/private message me.

    Example .acf file (for sr-22):

    %
    % Cirrus SR22.
    %

    model_name = 'Cirrus SR22'

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Minimum eye distance to objects.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    d_E_min = 1

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Approach speed, power and flap setting.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    V_approach = 45
    D_F_approach = .2
    D_P_approach = .4

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Cruise speed, power and flap setting.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    V_cruise = 65
    D_F_cruise = .0
    D_P_cruise = .7

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Constants for terrain elevation filters.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    spring_e_T = 80
    damper_e_T = 15

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Spring/damper constants for camera rotation.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Critical damping: spring = damper^2/4.
    spring_vertical = 80
    damper_vertical = 15
    spring_horizontal = 80
    damper_horizontal = 15

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Collision vertices.
    % VREF: Zero is below the nose on the ground.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    p_v = [
    % Main wheels.
    [ -2.9 -1.6 -.3 ]
    [ -2.9 1.6 -.3 ]
    % Nosewheel.
    [ -1 0 -.3 ]
    % Tail skid.
    [ -7 0 -1.5 ]
    % Top of cockpit.
    [ -3 0 -2 ]
    ]

    % Fixed gear installation.
    first_fixed = 0

    % Spring/damper format:
    % [ C_0 C_s C_d f F_max ]
    spring_damper = [
    [ 2500 5e4 1e4 .05 2e5 ]
    [ 2500 5e4 1e4 .05 2e5 ]
    [ 500 3e4 1e4 .05 1e5 ]
    [ 500 5e3 3e3 .05 3e4 ]
    ]

    % Contact patch format:
    % [ C_r_0 C_r C_b C_y K_s K_d C_max_x C_max_y b dalpha_dDR ]
    contact_patch = [
    % Main wheels.
    [ 200 8e-4 2e3 6e3 2.1e4 1.2e4 .8 .8 1.1 0 ]
    [ 200 8e-4 2e3 6e3 2.1e4 1.2e4 .8 .8 1.1 0 ]
    % Nosewheel. Only some Y force, no static friction.
    [ 0 0 0 6e3 0 0 0 .8 -1 .7 ]
    ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Power plant.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    P_max = 210e3
    F_max = 6000
    P_ratio_reverse = 0
    P_ratio_alpha = 1.4
    p_T_v = [ [ -.2 0 -1 ] ]
    d_T_v = [ [ 1 -.02 0 ] ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Eye point.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Pilot sits on the left.
    p_E_v = [ -2 -.5 -1.8 ]

    % Reference values.

    b = 11.7
    c_bar = 1.15

    % collision model values, leave at 1 for now.
    d_ref = 1
    v_ref = 1
    F_ref = 1


    % Mass/cm/inertia.

    m = 1315

    J = [
    [ 6500 0 0 ]
    [ 0 2500 0 ]
    [ 0 0 7700 ]
    ]

    p_CM_v = [ -2.6 0 -1 ]
    p_AC_v = [ -2.6 0 -1 ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Aerodynamics
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

    % Forces.
    alpha_z_0_deg = -4.5
    dalpha_z_deg_dDF = -2.5
    C_D_0 = 0.0278108
    dC_D_dDG = 0
    dC_D_dDF = .03
    dC_L_dalpha_deg = .095
    dC_L_dS = -1.5
    C_L_max_0 = 1.42
    dC_L_max_dDF = .5
    d2C_D_dC_L2 = 0.124852
    d2C_D_dC_Y2 = .1
    dC_Y_dDR = .001
    dC_Y_dbeta_deg = .025
    dC_Y_dp_hat = .0001
    dC_Y_dr_hat = -.0001

    % *** Moments ***

    % *** Pitch ***
    C_m_0 = 1e-5
    dC_m_dDE = .25
    dC_m_dDE_T = .06
    dC_m_dDF = .03
    dC_m_dDG = 0
    dC_m_dS = -.025
    dC_m_dq_hat = -12
    dC_m_dalpha_deg = -.013
    d2C_m_dbeta2 = -7e-1
    d2C_m_dq_hat2 = -10

    % *** Roll ***
    dC_l_dDA = .05
    dC_l_dDR = -1e-5
    dC_l_dbeta_deg = -1e-4
    dC_l_dp_hat_0 = -.43
    dC_l_dp_hat_max = .03
    dC_l_dr_hat_0 = .16
    ddC_l_dp_hat_0_dS = 2.3
    ddC_l_dr_hat_0_dS = 1.3
    d2C_l_dp_hat2 = -12

    % *** Yaw ***
    dC_n_dDA = -.01
    dC_n_dDR = .1
    dC_n_dbeta_deg = 5e-3
    dC_n_dp_hat = 0
    dC_n_dr_hat = -.8
    d2C_n_dr_hat2 = -1
    ٩(̾●̮̮̃̾Ľ̃̾)۶

  2. #2
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Mar 2009
    Posts
    2

    Default

    Was lead to this thread by Google, because I've got the same need to make a very slow flying craft,
    but it's because I fly a remote control video plane through the camera (wireless downlink)
    and want to simulate that slow speed flight (20-50knots).

    I've almost got the speed and mass down with the following settings.
    %
    % Cirrus SR22.
    %

    model_name = 'Cirrus SR22'

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Minimum eye distance to objects.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    d_E_min = 1

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Approach speed, power and flap setting.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    V_approach = 13
    D_F_approach = .2
    D_P_approach = .4

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Cruise speed, power and flap setting.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    V_cruise = 19
    D_F_cruise = .0
    D_P_cruise = .7

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Constants for terrain elevation filters.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    spring_e_T = 80
    damper_e_T = 15

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Spring/damper constants for camera rotation.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Critical damping: spring = damper^2/4.
    spring_vertical = 80
    damper_vertical = 15
    spring_horizontal = 80
    damper_horizontal = 15

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Collision vertices.
    % VREF: Zero is below the nose on the ground.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    p_v = [
    % Main wheels.
    [ -2.9 -1.6 -.3 ]
    [ -2.9 1.6 -.3 ]
    % Nosewheel.
    [ -1 0 -.3 ]
    % Tail skid.
    [ -7 0 -1.5 ]
    % Top of cockpit.
    [ -3 0 -2 ]
    ]

    % Fixed gear installation.
    first_fixed = 0

    % Spring/damper format:
    % [ C_0 C_s C_d f F_max ]
    spring_damper = [
    [ 2500 5e4 1e4 .05 2e5 ]
    [ 2500 5e4 1e4 .05 2e5 ]
    [ 500 3e4 1e4 .05 1e5 ]
    [ 500 5e3 3e3 .05 3e4 ]
    ]

    % Contact patch format:
    % [ C_r_0 C_r C_b C_y K_s K_d C_max_x C_max_y b dalpha_dDR ]
    contact_patch = [
    % Main wheels.
    [ 200 8e-4 2e3 6e3 2.1e4 1.2e4 .8 .8 1.1 0 ]
    [ 200 8e-4 2e3 6e3 2.1e4 1.2e4 .8 .8 1.1 0 ]
    % Nosewheel. Only some Y force, no static friction.
    [ 0 0 0 6e3 0 0 0 .8 -1 .7 ]
    ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Power plant.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    P_max = 21e3
    F_max = 600
    P_ratio_reverse = 0
    P_ratio_alpha = 1.4
    p_T_v = [ [ -.2 0 -1 ] ]
    d_T_v = [ [ 1 -.02 0 ] ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Eye point.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Pilot sits on the left.
    p_E_v = [ -2 -.5 -1.8 ]

    % Reference values.

    b = 11.7
    c_bar = 1.15

    % collision model values, leave at 1 for now.
    d_ref = 1
    v_ref = 1
    F_ref = 1


    % Mass/cm/inertia.

    m = 100

    J = [
    [ 300 0 0 ]
    [ 0 125 0 ]
    [ 0 0 335 ]
    ]

    p_CM_v = [ -2.6 0 -1 ]
    p_AC_v = [ -2.6 0 -1 ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Aerodynamics
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

    % Forces.
    alpha_z_0_deg = -4.5
    dalpha_z_deg_dDF = -2.5
    C_D_0 = 0.0278108
    dC_D_dDG = 0
    dC_D_dDF = .03
    dC_L_dalpha_deg = .095
    dC_L_dS = -1.5
    C_L_max_0 = 1.42
    dC_L_max_dDF = .5
    d2C_D_dC_L2 = 0.124852
    d2C_D_dC_Y2 = .1
    dC_Y_dDR = .001
    dC_Y_dbeta_deg = .025
    dC_Y_dp_hat = .0001
    dC_Y_dr_hat = -.0001

    % *** Moments ***

    % *** Pitch ***
    C_m_0 = 1e-5
    dC_m_dDE = .25
    dC_m_dDE_T = .06
    dC_m_dDF = .03
    dC_m_dDG = 0
    dC_m_dS = -.025
    dC_m_dq_hat = -12
    dC_m_dalpha_deg = -.013
    d2C_m_dbeta2 = -7e-1
    d2C_m_dq_hat2 = -10

    % *** Roll ***
    dC_l_dDA = .05
    dC_l_dDR = -1e-5
    dC_l_dbeta_deg = -1e-4
    dC_l_dp_hat_0 = -.43
    dC_l_dp_hat_max = .03
    dC_l_dr_hat_0 = .16
    ddC_l_dp_hat_0_dS = 2.3
    ddC_l_dr_hat_0_dS = 1.3
    d2C_l_dp_hat2 = -12

    % *** Yaw ***
    dC_n_dDA = -.01
    dC_n_dDR = .1
    dC_n_dbeta_deg = 5e-3
    dC_n_dp_hat = 0
    dC_n_dr_hat = -.8
    d2C_n_dr_hat2 = -1
    The power settings are scaled down, but still overpowered for slow cruise. If I want to cruise at 30 knots for instance I'm running at only 10% power or so.

    Now I'm trying to make some sense of the aerodynamics and moments settings so I can speed up the controls. I'm posting this here as it is
    because my slow control responses would be just fine for your
    submarine. They're just not very useful for a small R/C aircraft flying
    close to terrain.
    If anyone knows how to increase the roll and pitch response for a slow, light weight craft, post it up here.
    I've found that it doesn't take much tweaking to produce settings that just crash GE outright.

    ian

  3. #3
    ṨῤἵḋểṙẊƻƻ SpiderX22's Avatar
    Join Date
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    Location
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    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Daemon View Post
    Now I'm trying to make some sense of the aerodynamics and moments settings so I can speed up the controls. I'm posting this here as it is
    because my slow control responses would be just fine for your
    submarine. They're just not very useful for a small R/C aircraft flying
    close to terrain.
    If anyone knows how to increase the roll and pitch response for a slow, light weight craft, post it up here.
    I've found that it doesn't take much tweaking to produce settings that just crash GE outright.
    ian
    Thank you! I'll try this as soon as I can.

    "I've found that it doesn't take much tweaking to produce settings that just crash GE outright." --> So true! =D

    I hit 20,000 mph then it went NR and on windows task manager Google Earth was using 1,650,000k memory. Hehe.
    ٩(̾●̮̮̃̾Ľ̃̾)۶

  4. #4
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Mar 2009
    Posts
    2

    Default

    Here's what I finally settled on for my R/C aircraft settings.
    With flaps at 0%, it'll cruise at 40knots at half throttle level flight
    Max around 65 knots full throttle, level flight, and 80-85 in a dive.
    It stalls around 18 knots.
    At 100% flaps
    it'll cruise at 25 knots half throttle level flight
    maxes out around 50 knots
    stalls at about 15 knots
    It'll slow down quick and you can really look around at details at these
    speeds.
    I improved the control response by messing with the roll moments
    some, but it's got an annoying dead band, and then it moves
    suddenly. If someone can figure out how to smooth out
    the response around center, while still giving fast roll, I want to know it.

    Enjoy.

    ian

    %
    % Cirrus SR22.
    %

    model_name = 'Cirrus SR22'

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Minimum eye distance to objects.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    d_E_min = 1

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Approach speed, power and flap setting.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    V_approach = 13
    D_F_approach = .2
    D_P_approach = .4

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Cruise speed, power and flap setting.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    V_cruise = 19
    D_F_cruise = .0
    D_P_cruise = .7

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Constants for terrain elevation filters.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    spring_e_T = 80
    damper_e_T = 15

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Spring/damper constants for camera rotation.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Critical damping: spring = damper^2/4.
    spring_vertical = 80
    damper_vertical = 15
    spring_horizontal = 80
    damper_horizontal = 15

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Collision vertices.
    % VREF: Zero is below the nose on the ground.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    p_v = [
    % Main wheels.
    [ -2.9 -1.6 -.3 ]
    [ -2.9 1.6 -.3 ]
    % Nosewheel.
    [ -1 0 -.3 ]
    % Tail skid.
    [ -7 0 -1.5 ]
    % Top of cockpit.
    [ -3 0 -2 ]
    ]

    % Fixed gear installation.
    first_fixed = 0

    % Spring/damper format:
    % [ C_0 C_s C_d f F_max ]
    spring_damper = [
    [ 2500 5e4 1e4 .05 2e5 ]
    [ 2500 5e4 1e4 .05 2e5 ]
    [ 500 3e4 1e4 .05 1e5 ]
    [ 500 5e3 3e3 .05 3e4 ]
    ]

    % Contact patch format:
    % [ C_r_0 C_r C_b C_y K_s K_d C_max_x C_max_y b dalpha_dDR ]
    contact_patch = [
    % Main wheels.
    [ 200 8e-4 2e3 6e3 2.1e4 1.2e4 .8 .8 1.1 0 ]
    [ 200 8e-4 2e3 6e3 2.1e4 1.2e4 .8 .8 1.1 0 ]
    % Nosewheel. Only some Y force, no static friction.
    [ 0 0 0 6e3 0 0 0 .8 -1 .7 ]
    ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Power plant.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    P_max = 21e3
    F_max = 600
    P_ratio_reverse = 0
    P_ratio_alpha = 1.4
    p_T_v = [ [ -.2 0 -1 ] ]
    d_T_v = [ [ 1 -.02 0 ] ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Eye point.
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Pilot sits on the left.
    p_E_v = [ -2 -.5 -1.8 ]

    % Reference values.

    b = 11.7
    c_bar = 1.15

    % collision model values, leave at 1 for now.
    d_ref = 1
    v_ref = 1
    F_ref = 1


    % Mass/cm/inertia.

    m = 100

    J = [
    [ 150 0 0 ]
    [ 0 75 0 ]
    [ 0 0 160 ]
    ]

    p_CM_v = [ -2.6 0 -1 ]
    p_AC_v = [ -2.6 0 -1 ]


    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    % Aerodynamics
    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

    % Forces.
    alpha_z_0_deg = -1.0
    dalpha_z_deg_dDF = -2.5
    C_D_0 = 0.0478108
    dC_D_dDG = 0
    dC_D_dDF = .03
    dC_L_dalpha_deg = .095
    dC_L_dS = -1.5
    C_L_max_0 = 1.42
    dC_L_max_dDF = .5
    d2C_D_dC_L2 = 0.124852
    d2C_D_dC_Y2 = .1
    dC_Y_dDR = .001
    dC_Y_dbeta_deg = .025
    dC_Y_dp_hat = .0001
    dC_Y_dr_hat = -.0001

    % *** Moments ***

    % *** Pitch ***
    C_m_0 = 1e-5
    dC_m_dDE = .25
    dC_m_dDE_T = .06
    dC_m_dDF = .03
    dC_m_dDG = 0
    dC_m_dS = -.025
    dC_m_dq_hat = -12
    dC_m_dalpha_deg = -.013
    d2C_m_dbeta2 = -7e-1
    d2C_m_dq_hat2 = -10

    % *** Roll ***
    dC_l_dDA = .2
    dC_l_dDR = -5e-5
    dC_l_dbeta_deg = -1e-4
    dC_l_dp_hat_0 = -.43
    dC_l_dp_hat_max = .03
    dC_l_dr_hat_0 = 0.16
    ddC_l_dp_hat_0_dS = 2.3
    ddC_l_dr_hat_0_dS = 1.3
    d2C_l_dp_hat2 = -6

    % *** Yaw ***
    dC_n_dDA = -.01
    dC_n_dDR = .1
    dC_n_dbeta_deg = 5e-3
    dC_n_dp_hat = 0
    dC_n_dr_hat = -.8
    d2C_n_dr_hat2 = -1

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