Anomaly in the china desert near the tajikistan border
data myself and others have gathered so far:
the entire line is only .4 km or so in length. its at a heading of 34.64 degrees and each hole is about 40-45 feet in diameter. the distance from the eastern-most most hole to the tajikistan border is .75km. its at an entry to a valley and its in what was probably a long time ago, a riverbed (that isn't water, its snow). Holes have been there since at least 2004, hasn't been updated since 2007.
it is in a relatively uninhabited area, nearest cities are in tajikistan, 9 and 12 km away. nearest village in china is 45km away.
given all of that, it could be from the use of explosives, either by the military (training bombing run by chineese pilots?) or by people shooting crap across the border (mortars, etc?).
i would rule out a blasting for a railroad, given there aren't a series of them there to continue with. i would also rule out blasting for mining as there isn't any mining gear nearby unless they're very old and also depleted, but it also doesn't look like the area is worn out from being dug up or drained of oil, there aren't any pipes around. check out the distance between each hole, its fairly consistent until you get to the most eastern one.
I at first thought about them being border sensors. But then the pattern they are in doesn't make sense. they're pointed at/away from the border, not along it. if anything, they seem like they're purposefully at an entrance to the valley. The other possibility is exhaust vents for something underground, but i looked around some and couldn't see any of the tell tale signs of a concealed bunker in any of the mountains that would indicate that.
i was told to post this here from a reference on the googleearth subreddit, they thought you all might have already seen this and figured it out.
This doesn't answer your question, but look in the area around
There are similar patterns in the desert floor. This area is labeled as Soviet gold exploration. Taking samples at regular intervals seems a reasonable approach for mineral exploration.
I agree they look like large test holes for something. There is some activity just west of the lin that is different but just as old.