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Chatham Defences, Kent

In 1667 the Dutch raided the Medway, then protected only by Upnor Castle. This started a program of work to protect Chatham dockyard with the addition of Cockham Wood and Gillingham Forts which were built in 1669 and later in 1756 the Cumberland lines, defences around the dockyard, and Fort Amherst. Forts Pitt and Clarence were added in 1805 and then a ring of forts was built around the south, north and east of Chatham dockyard between the late 1870's and 1900. These were based on a polygonal design for the land forts and a circular plan for the island forts on Darnet and Hoo.