Situated about fifteen kilometres west of Paris, the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye was originally a royal residence. Louis VI the Fat built the first castle there in 1124, Saint Louis had a chapel built in the thirteenth century and Louis XIV was born there. In 1862, Napoleon III decided to restore the castle and use it for the national archaeological collections. Renovated by Malraux, it now houses national antiquities from the early settlement of France until the year 1000. It has the finest known collection of carved and engraved prehistoric art, of which the female head from Brassempouy is one of the masterpieces.