Napata was a city-state on the west bank of the Nile River, some 400 km north of Khartoum, the present capital of Sudan. It was built around 1345 BC by the Nubians.
Since Early Dynastic times, Egyptians had been interested in Nubia, an area very rich in gold. They soon controlled that trade, which did not profit the Nubians, so that Egypt became an imperialistic power in Nubia. Egyptian customs, habits, religions spread into the land.
In 1075 BC, the High Priest of Amun at Thebes, capital of Ancient Egypt, became powerful enough to limit the power of the pharaoh over Upper Egypt. This was the beginning of the Third Intermediate Period (1075 BC-664 BC). The fragmentation of power in Egypt allowed the Nubians to regain autonomy. They founded a new kingdom, Kush, and centered it at Napata.
They began exploiting gold to their own profit. The economical growth of Kush attracted some Egyptians, who left their country, which was undergoing several political troubles, including the Libyan power over part of Lower Egypt, the subdivision of Egypt into small and relatively powerless kingdoms, and the menace of Assyrian conquest.